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Table 3 Echocardiographic characteristics of the study population

From: The clinical impact of valvular heart disease in a population-based cohort of subjects aged 80 and older

  No VHD (n = 92) Mild VHD (n = 367) Moderate-to-severe VHD (n = 97) p value
LV morphology and function
 LVEF (%) 55 ± 3 55 ± 5 55 ± 3 0.60
 LVEF < 50 %, n (%) 4 (4 %) 26 (7 %) 2 (2 %) 0.14
 LV mass (g/m2) 86 ± 21 92 ± 23 98 ± 27 0.002
 LVH, n (%) 10 (11 %) 57 (16 %) 18 (19 %) 0.33
 Indexed LAV (mL/m2) 30 ± 9 32 ± 10 39 ± 12 <0.001
 Indexed LAV > 34 mL/m2, n (%) 23 (25 %) 145 (40 %) 62 (65 %) <0.001
 Stroke volume (mL/beat) 68 ± 19 70 ± 16 68 ± 14 0.48
 RWMA, n (%) 13 (14 %) 43 (12 %) 7 (7 %) 0.30
LV diastolic filling
 E/A ratio 0.87 ± 0.44 0.92 ± 0.48 1.07 ± 0.58 0.027
 E/A ratio ≥ 1.5, n (%) 6 (7 %) 31 (9 %) 14 (19 %) 0.013
 E/e’ ratio 10.7 ± 3.1 11.6 ± 4.0 13.5 ± 4.2 <0.001
 E/e’ ratio ≥ 13, n (%) 23 (25 %) 102 (28 %) 41 (53 %) <0.001
 Deceleration time (ms) 178 ± 41 178 ± 44 174 ± 51 0.74
 Deceleration time < 160 ms, n (%) 29 (32 %) 115 (32 %) 35 (48 %) 0.028
 Vp (cm/s) 58 ± 17 56 ± 16 52 ± 22 0.12
 Vp < 45 cm/s, n (%) 23 (25 %) 114 (32 %) 35 (48 %) 0.006
  1. A atrial transmitral peak velocity, E early transmitral peak velocity, e’ early peak mitral annular velocity, LAV left atrial volume, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVH left ventricular hypertrophy (LV mass index >109 g/m2 in women and >132 g/m2 in men.), RWMA regional wall motion abnormalities, Vp velocity of inflow propagation