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Table 3 Echocardiographic parameters of the participants according to blood pressure variability

From: Blood pressure variability and its association with echocardiographic parameters in hypertensive diabetic patients

  Total sample Low variability High variability P
(n = 305) (n = 148) (n = 157)
Cardiac chamber diameters
 Aorta (cm) 3.16 ± 0.36 3.17 ± 0.37 3.14 ± 0.34 0.383
 Left atrium (cm) 3.80 ± 0.45 3.83 ± 0.46 3.77 ± 0.42 0.238
 LVSD (cm) 2.99 ± 0.40 2.99 ± 0.42 2.99 ± 0.39 0.898
 LVDD (cm) 4.58 ± 0.47 4.61 ± 0.47 4.55 ± 0.46 0.291
 Right ventricle (cm) 2.15 ± 0.28 2.16 ± 0.27 2.13 ± 0.28 0.470
 LVEF (%) 64.66 ± 5.27 64.90 ± 5.09 64.42 ± 5.44 0.856
Left ventricular hypertrophy
 RWT 0.43 ± 0.08 0.43 ± 0.09 0.43 ± 0.07 0.780
 Septum thickness (cm) 1.00 ± 0.17 1.00 ± 0.18 0.99 ± 0.16 0.676
 PW Thickness (cm) 0.95 ± 0.15 0.95 ± 0.15 0.95 ± 0.15 0.683
 LVMI (g/m2) 99.19 ± 30.24 100.38 ± 32.24 98.08 ± 28.33 0.513
 LAVI (mL/m2) 29.14 ± 9.98 29.32 ± 10.64 28.97 ± 9.34 0.497
Diastolic function
 E wave velocity (m/s) 0.98 ± 0.18 0.97 ± 0.20 0.99 ± 0.16 0.494
 A wave velocity (m/s) 0.82 ± 0.23 0.82 ± 0.24 0.82 ± 0.23 0.976
 E wave DT (m/s) 235.28 ± 44.16 233.07 ± 45.26 237.37 ± 43.13 0.397
 A wave length (cm/s) 179.15 ± 42.30 176.44 ± 42.15 181.71 ± 42.41 0.292
 E/A ratio (m) 0.95 ± 0.30 0.94 ± 0.28 0.95 ± 0.33 0.795
 E’ wave velocity (m/s) 0.07 ± 0.03 0.07 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.04 0.387
 E/E’ ratio 11.10 ± 3.66 11.22 ± 4.08 10.99 ± 3.22 0.586
 IVRT (m/s) 109.22 ± 18.15 109.42 ± 19.11 109.04 ± 17.24 0.855
  1. The comparison groups were defined by the median of time-rate index of 24 h systolic BP and classified as low and high variability of time-rate index: values ≤ 0.54 or ≥ 0.55, respectively
  2. LVSD left ventricular systolic diameter, LVDD left ventricular diastolic diameter, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, RWT relative wall thickness, PW posterior wall, LVMI left ventricular mass index, LAVI left atrial volume index, IVTR isovolumetric relaxation time, DT E wave deceleration time, BP blood pressure
  3. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Comparisons (low vs. high variability) were tested by Student t test