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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the participants according to blood pressure variability

From: Blood pressure variability and its association with echocardiographic parameters in hypertensive diabetic patients

Characteristics Total sample Low variability High variability P
(n = 305) (n = 148) (n = 157)
Age 57.3 ± 6.2 57.9 ± 6.4 57.5 ± 6.0 0.565
Female gender 196 (64.3) 99 (66.9) 97 (61.8) 0.354
Caucasian 207 (68.3) 99 (66.9) 110 (70.1) 0.334
Duration of diabetes (years) 10 (5 – 16) 10 (5 – 16) 10 (5 – 17) 0.466
Weight 78.3 ± 12.8 79.6 ± 13.6 77.3 ± 12.1 0.116
BMI (kg/m2) 30.1 ± 3.8 30.7 ± 3.9 29.6 ± 3.7 0.013
Waist circumference 102 ± 9 103 ± 10 101 ± 91 0.203
Neck circumference 38.5 ± 3.5 38.5 ± 3.3 38.6 ± 3.7 0.874
Smoking  
 No 163 (33.4) 81 (55.9) 82 (52.2) 0.803
 Yes 38 (12.6) 18 (12.4) 20 (12.7)
 Former 101 (54) 46 (31.7) 55 (35.0)
With any previous cardiovascular comorbiditya 70 (23) 31 (20.9) 39 (24.8) 0.404
Abnormal albuminuriab 88 (28.9) 43 (29.0) 45 (28.7) 0.520
Myocardial infarction 38 (12.6) 16 (11.0) 22 (14.1) 0.410
Coronary artery bypass grafting 13 (4.3) 4 (2.8) 9 (5.8) 0.199
PCI 25 (8.3) 9 (6.3) 16 (10.3) 0.210
Heart failure 26 (8.7) 15 (10.3) 11 (7.1) 0.318
Stroke 28 (9.5) 19 (13.5) 9 (5.8) 0.024
Medications
Insulin 143 (47.2) 58 (39.5) 85 (54.5) 0.009
1 Antihypertensive drug 50 (16.4) 22 (14.9) 28 (17.8) 0.537
2 Antihypertensive drug 87 (28.5) 38 (25.7) 49 (31.2) 0.311
≥3 Antihypertensive drug 168 (55.1) 88 (59.5) 80 (51) 0.167
Antiplatelet 199 (65.9) 101 (68.7) 98 (63.2) 0.315
Statins 210 (69.8) 113 (76.9) 97 (63) 0.009
Laboratory characteristics
HbA1c (%) 8.2 ± 1.9 8.2 ± 1.9 8.3 ± 1.9 0.743
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 159.3 ± 72.4 162.2 ± 74.8 156.7 ± 70.4 0.533
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 178.8 ± 42.4 176.6 ± 38.7 180.7 ± 45.6 0.426
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 41.9 ± 11.8 42.1 ± 12.3 41.8 ± 11.4 0.793
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 155 (103.8 – 234) 152 (103 – 216) 163 (104 – 248) 0.534
GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 90.4 ± 26.8 89.1 ± 26.4 91.7 ± 27.2 0.401
  1. The comparison groups were defined by the median of time-rate index of 24 h systolic BP and classified as low and high variability of time-rate index: values ≤ 0.54 or ≥ 0.55, respectively
  2. BMI body mass index; PCI percutaneous coronary intervention; GFR estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated by the MDRD equation; BP: blood pressure
  3. aWith previous cardiovascular comorbidity = when reported at least one previous cardiovascular disease (Myocardial infarction; Coronary artery bypass grafting; PCI; Heart failure; Stroke)
  4. bAbnormal albuminuria, defined by albuminuria >17 mg/L
  5. Continuous variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range (p25-p75)). Categorical variables are expressed as number (%). Comparisons (low variability vs. high variability) were tested by Pearson’s χ 2 test, Student t test and Mann–Whitney test