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Table 3 Risk factors associated with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Analysis adjusted by age, gender and baseline ankle-brachial index (ABI)

From: Incidence of peripheral arterial disease in the ARTPER population cohort after 5 years of follow-up

Baseline variablesa HR CI 95 % p
Men 1.81 1.20–2.71 0.011
Age (by year) 1.04 1.01–1.06 0.006
Education level    
 Illiterate 1.00   
 Primary education 0.71 0.32–1.57 0.288
 Secondary education or University 0.85 0.35–2.07 0.385
Smoking habit    
 Never smoker 1.00   
 Former smoker 2.69 1.45–5.01 0.002
 Current smoker 3.78 2.01–7.11 0.000
Physical activity in leisure timeb (mean, SD) 0.97 0.90–1.05 0.498
Physical activity limitations    
 None 1.00   
 Moderate 2.03 1.20–3.42 0.008
 Can only do light activities or any activity causes breathlessness 2.55 1.31–4.97 0.006
Body mass index (Kg/m2) (mean, SD) 1.03 0.98–1.07 0.234
Central obesityc 1.10 0.70–1.73 0.690
Morbidity (clinical record)    
 Hypertension 1.71 1.09–2.67 0.018
 Hypercholesterolemia 0.98 0.65–1.47 0.905
 Diabetes 1.73 1.06–2.84 0.028
High LDL (>130 mg/dl) 0.89 0.59–1.34 0.577
Low HDL (<40 mg/dl men, <50 mg/dl women) 1.82 1.17–2.82 0.008
High triglycerides (>150 mg/dl) 1.05 0.66–1.65 0.846
Atherogenic dyslipidaemia 1.11 0.58–2.12 0.742
  1. aMissing values (withoutPAD + with PAD): education level (101 + 4), physical activity in leisure time (424 + 20), physical activity limitations (19 + 1), body mass index (2 + 0), central obesity (11 + 0), hypertension (28 + 3), hypercholesterolemia (51 + 1), LDL (20 + 0), triglycerides (22 + 0), atherogenic dyslipidaemia (1 + 0)
  2. bExpressed in thousands of METS spent in 14 days doing sporting activities, walking, gardening, walking up stairs, housecleaning and shopping by foot
  3. cCentral obesity if the circumference of the hip ≥102 (men) or ≥88 (women)