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Table 4 Heart rate variability in the time and frequency domain at baseline and during recovery from exercise protocol

From: Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in chronic stroke women is attenuated after submaximal exercise test, as evaluated by linear and nonlinear analysis

  Baseline Recovery
Parameters C S C S
Time Domain     
 VarRR (ms2) 1152 ± 39 717 ± 44* 1346 ± 130 890 ± 66*†
 SDNN (ms) 40 ± 8 30 ± 5* 41 ± 6 44 ± 8†
 rMSSD (ms) 34 ± 3 14 ± 2* 42 ± 4 35 ± 3†
 pNN50 (%) 8.7 ± 1.0 2.2 ± 0.5* 17.3 ± 4.2† 7.5 ± 1.6*†
Frequency Domain     
 LF (ms2) 266 ± 80 216 ± 35 317 ± 81 244 ± 33†
 LF (%) 23 ± 6 12 ± 4 21 ± 5 25 ± 8†
 HF (ms2) 384 ± 75 55 ± 13* 533 ± 80 154 ± 30*†
 HF (%) 33.1 ± 9 8.4 ± 2* 38.2 ± 6 16.3 ± 3*†
Symbolic analysis     
 0V (%) 21 ± 3 39.9 ± 2 24 ± 3 30.0 ± 3†
 1V (%) 49 ± 1 42.5 ± 1 48 ± 2 45 ± 2
 2V (%) 30 ± 3 17.3 ± 1 28 ± 4 25 ± 3†
  1. Values expressed as mean ± SD. C control group, S stroke group, VarRR variance of RR interval, SDNN standard deviation of the RR interval, rMSSD root-mean square of differences of successive RR intervals, pNN50% of differences of adjacent RR intervals > 50 ms, LF low frequency band in absolute and normalized values, HF high frequency band in absolute and normalized values, LF/HF low frequency/high frequency ratio; patterns with no variation (0 V; i. e., all 3 symbols were equal), (2) patterns with 1 variation (1 V; i. e., 2 symbols were equal and the remaining symbol was different), and patterns with 2 variations (2 V; i. e., all symbols were different from the previous ones) *P < 0.05 vs. C; †P < 0.05 vs. baseline in the same group; ‡P < 0.05 vs. post-exercise in the same group