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Table 1 Demographic features of study participants

From: Determinants of arterial stiffness progression in a Han-Chinese population in Taiwan: a 4-year longitudinal follow-up

% or mean ± SD All (N = 577) Women (N = 353) Men (N = 224)
Follow-up duration (y) 4.2 ± 0.8 4.3 ± 0.8 4.2 ± 0.8
  Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow-up
Age (y) 54.5 ± 9.2 58.7 ± 9.2 54.0 ± 9.2 58.2 ± 9.2 55.2 ± 9.3 59.4 ± 9.3
Hypertension (%) 29.5 39.7 28.9 38.0 30.4 42.4
Diabetes (%) 8.5 13.0 4.9 9.6 14.3 ** 18.3 **
Hyperlipidemia (%) 21.7 40.6 20.9 40.5 23.3 40.6
Obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) (%) 31.0 41.6 27.6 34.6 46.0 ** 54.8 **
Ex- and current smoker (%) 16.3 19.6 3.4 4.0 40.2 ** 44.2 **
MAP (mmHg) 88.8 ± 10.3 85.2 ± 9.6 88.2 ± 10.7 83.9 ± 9.6 89.6 ± 9.6 87.3 ± 9.2 **
FBS (mg/dL) 103.7 ± 23.2 99.5 ± 22.0 101.2 ± 20.4 98.0 ± 23.5 107.7 ± 26.6 ** 101.7 ± 19.2
TC (mg/dL) 200.5 ± 37.4 206.3 ± 36.0 203.8 ± 35.8 209.3 ± 35.3 195.2 ± 39.3 * 201.7 ± 36.7 *
TG (mg/dL) 120.8 ± 72.1 120.1 ± 71.6 112.6 ± 66.5 114.2 ± 70.0 133.63 ± 78.76 ** 129.5 ± 73.4 *
HDL-C (mg/dL) 56.4 ± 15.0 57.6 ± 14.5 60.7 ± 15.7 61.9 ± 14.7 49.6 ± 10.9 ** 50.8 ± 11.2 **
BMI (kg/m2) 24.3 ± 3.2 24.7 ± 3.4 23.7 ± 3.1 24.0 ± 3.3 25.3 ± 3.1 ** 25.7 ± 3.3 **
Arterial stiffness
 PWV (m/s) 6.1 ± 1.1 6.9 ± 1.2 6.0 ± 1.1 6.7 ± 1.1 6.3 ± 1.2 ** 7.2 ± 1.3 **
 EP (kPa) 104.7 ± 43.3 135.8 ± 53.3 100.8 ± 41.1 130.2 ± 48.6 110.9 ± 46.1 ** 144.7 ± 59.0 **
 β 8.0 ± 2.9 10.9 ± 3.8 7.7 ± 2.6 10.6 ± 3.5 8.4 ± 3.2 ** 11.4 ± 4.2 *
Progression rate of arterial stiffness
 ΔPWV/yr (m/s/yr) 0.19 ± 0.20 0.18 ± 0.20 0.20 ± 0.20
 ΔEP/yr (kPa/yr) 7.44 ± 8.43 6.98 ± 8.26 8.17 ± 8.65
 Δβ/yr 0.68 ± 0.59 0.67 ± 0.56 0.70 ± 0.64
  1. BMI body mass index, FBS fasting blood sugar, MAP mean arterial pressure, TG triglyceride, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  2. *P <0.05, **P < 0.01, in comparison between men and women using Student’s t test or Chi-squared test