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Table 3 Age- and field-center-adjusted CHD incidence hazard ratios for various ABI categories from Cox models for white and African American participants: the ARIC study, 1987–2001*

From: The association of the ankle-brachial index with incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study, 1987–2001

  Whites African Americans
Covariate(s) HR*Men (95% CI*) HR Women (95% CI) HR Men (95% CI) HR Women (95% CI)
PAD     
   ABI < 0.90 2.81 (1.77–4.45) 2.05 (1.20–3.53) 4.86 (2.78–8.47) 2.34 (1.26–4.35)
   ABI ≥ 0.90 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
   ABI < 0.90 men, < 0.85 women 2.81 (1.77–4.45) 3.31 (1.70–6.45) 4.86 (2.79–8.47) 2.76 (1.35–5.66)
   ABI ≥ 0.90 men, ≥ 0.85 women 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
ABI     
   ≤ 0.80 2.39 (1.24–4.60) 7.19 (3.59–14.41) 2.80 (1.16–6.73) 3.60 (1.62–8.00)
   (0.80–0.90] 1.94 (0.97–3.84) 0.76 (0.31–1.89) 4.87 (2.25–10.56) 0.87 (0.31–2.41)
   (0.90–1.00] 1.15 (0.75–1.77) 1.18 (0.79–1.77) 0.91 (0.42–1.96) 1.10 (0.65–1.86)
   (1.00–1.10] 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
   (1.10–1.20] 0.93 (0.72–1.20) 0.81 (0.58–1.13) 0.71 (0.45–1.12) 0.54 (0.34–0.85)
   (1.20–1.30] 0.54 (0.41–0.73) 0.60 (0.39–0.92) 0.74 (0.46–1.18) 0.56 (0.33–0.95)
   > 1.30 0.57 (0.40–0.80) 0.90 (0.55–1.49) 0.53 (0.27–1.04) 0.42 (0.18–0.98)
  1. *CHD, coronary heart disease; ABI, ankle-brachial index; ARIC, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; PAD, peripheral arterial disease.