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Table 3 Hazard rate ratios (and 95% CI) for CHD across quartiles of dietary intakes among 14,430 participants in the ARIC Study.

From: Usual choline and betaine dietary intake and incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

  Quartile (Q) of dietary intake
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
  (N = 3607) (N = 3608) (N = 3608) (N = 3607)
Choline <217 mg/d 217–283 mg/d 283–363 mg/d >363 mg/d
Model #1* Referent 0.89 (0.73, 1.08) 1.11 (0.90, 1.38) 1.22 (0.91, 1.64)
Model #2 Referent 0.84 (0.69, 1.03) 1.03 (0.82, 1.29) 1.05 (0.76, 1.45)
Model #3 Referent 0.93 (0.76, 1.13) 1.10 (0.87, 1.37) 1.09 (0.79, 1.50)
Total choline <298 mg/d 298–384 mg/d 384–486 mg/d >486 mg/d
Model #1 Referent 0.91 (0.75, 1.10) 1.07 (0.86, 1.33) 1.14 (0.85, 1.53)
Model #2 Referent 0.87 (0.72, 1.05) 1.01 (0.81, 1.26) 0.99 (0.73, 1.35)
Model #3 Referent 0.86 (0.67, 1.11) 1.21 (0.97, 1.52) 1.14 (0.83, 1.56)
  1. *In models #1, adjustment was made for age, sex, education, total energy intake, and dietary folate, methionine and vitamin B6.
  2. In models #2, adjustment was made for all of the above plus race, diabetes status, ARIC field center, menopausal status and dietary cholesterol.
  3. In models #3, adjustment was made for all of the variables listed in models #2 plus dietary intake of saturated fatty acids, animal fat, dietary fiber and animal protein.