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Archived Comments for: Effect of the G-308A polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene promoter site on plasma levels of TNF-α and C-reactive protein in smokers: a cross-sectional study

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  1. Smoking and CRP, from the clinical view-point.

    Sergio Stagnaro, Private

    3 December 2004

    Bed-side evaluating Acute Phase Proteins (APP), including C Reactive Protein (CRP), is nowadays possible by means of Biophysical Semeiotics (See my site, HONCode N° 233736,, Practical Application,URL: . APP are notoriously numerous proteins, synthesized by the liver; their bed-side evaluation has proved to be useful, from both diagnostic and prognostic view-point, as allows me to state a 47-year-long well-established “clinical experience (1-6). In addition, such as original assessement represents an useful tool in research, and permits doctor to perform therapeutic monitoring in a new, remarkable, and reliable way. For example, according to the authors of this excellent paper, in many smokers I did'nt found APP elevated tissue concentrations (lever), by means of Biophysical Semeiotics.Interestingly, such as individuals are or were not involved by oncological terrain (6). As I wrote also in above-cited site (in “Biophysical Semeiotic Constitutions”) all possible “risk factors”, by different pathogenetic action mechanisms, must necessarily act on a particular “constitutional terrain” in order to provoke one or more of the most common and serious human diseases, since genetic alterations, both “parenchymal” and “microcirculatory”, well located in a precise biological system, represent the base of different constitutions, conditio sine qua non of the deleterious effects caused by “risk factors”, sometimes by means of inflammations (7). From biophysical-semeiotic view-point, I demonstrated that the genetic abnormality to produce APP, including CRP, in a larger amount than normally, i.e. in healthy, takes part of different “constitutions” , which predispose to DM, dyslipidaemia, arterial hypertension, rheumatic diseases, arteriosclerosis, and malignancies. In a few words, inflammation, revealed by increased production of APP, and particularly CRP in CAD, indicates exclusively the presence of one, or more, of some remarkable biophysical-semeiotic constitutions, predisposing to diverse, most common and serious, human disorders (8). In other words, abnormality of inflammatory response is a “clinical” sign of one (or more) of these constitutions.

    A long clinical experience allows me to state that the presence of “diabetic”, ”rheumatic”, “dislipidaemic”, “arteriosclerotic”, “hypertensive”, “oncological”, biophysical-semeiotic constitution, either alone or associated with other(s), is always combined with abnormalities of type II hepatic-aspecific gastric reflex (= ungueal pressure upon cutaneous projection area of lever brings about stomach dilation, i.e., gastric aspecific reflex (1-5), more or less intense: “basal” lt 9 sec. or less (NN = 10 sec.) which lowers to < 5 sec. (NN = 9-10 sec.) during apnea test, lasting only for 5 sec., and persisting boxer’test: Restano’s manoeuvre (6, 7).

    From the above briefly referred data, it follows that body response type to the agents stimulating hepatic APP production, shows a precise genetic component, always correlated with one (or more) particular biophysical-semeiotic constitution, conditio sine qua non of disease onset, e.g., CAD, indicating clearly the real role played by inflammation in arteriosclerosis pathogenesis, that is surely important, but dependent on an outstanding biophysical-semeiotic constitution, which could also be associated to other(s).

    Therefore, the altered, intense APP synthesis, under a large variety of pathological conditions, is part of a (or more) singular “constitution” , and a sign of it, according to paper's author.

    In conclusion, inflammation plays surely an important and remarkable role in arteriosclerotic disease onset, for example CAD, as well as cancer, in many cases, because it is always dependent on patient’s constitution, which defines both seriousness and type of disease.

    1) Stagnaro-Neri M., Stagnaro S., Appendicite. Min. Med. 87, 183 (Pub-Med indexed for Medline)

    2) Stagnaro S., Polimialgia Reumatica Acuta Benigna Variante. Clin. Ter. 118, 193 (Pub-Med indexed for Medline) 1986

    3) Stagnaro-Neri M., Stagnaro S.,Herpes Zoster. Min. Med. 78, 1404 [Pub-Med indexed for MEDLINE] 1987

    4)Stagnaro S., Sindrome percusso-ascoltatoria di Iperfunzione del Sistema Reticolo-IstiocitarioMin. Med. 74, 479 [Pub-Med indexed for MEDLINE]. 1983

    6) Stagnaro Sergio, Stagnaro-Neri Marina. Introduzione alla Semeiotica Biofisica. Il Terreno oncologico”. Travel Factory SRL., Roma, 2004.

    7)Stagnaro S., Stagnaro-Neri M., Le Costituzioni Semeiotico-Biofisiche.Strumento clinico fondamentale per la prevenzione primaria e la definizione della Single Patient Based Medicine. Ediz. Travel Factory, Roma, 2004.

    Competing interests

    Not declared