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Table 1 Characteristics of patients in tertiles of hospitals with regard to median length of stay

From: National trends in hospital length of stay for acute myocardial infarction in China

  All hospitals (n = 12706) High-tertile hospitals (n = 4784) Middle-tertile hospitals (n = 5105) Low-tertile hospitals (n = 2817) P-value
Length of stay, median (IQR)      
2001 13 (8–19) 14 (9–21) 14 (9–18) 11 (7–16) 0.004
2006 11 (7–16) 13 (9–19) 11 (7–15) 8 (5–12) <.0001
2011 11 (7–15) 14 (9–18) 11 (8–14) 9 (6–12) <.0001
Year of admission      0.01
2001 1901 (15.0) 773 (16.2) 834 (16.3) 294 (10.4)  
2006 3553 (28.0) 1361 (28.5) 1391 (27.3) 801 (28.4)  
2011 7252 (57.1) 2650 (55.4) 2880 (56.4) 1722 (61.1)  
Socio-demographics      
Age, years      
Mean ± std 64.4 ± 12.5 63.8 ± 12.4 64.5 ± 12.7 65.1 ± 12.1 0.2
<55 2905 (22.9) 1176 (24.6) 1172 (23.0) 557 (19.8) 0.07
55-64 3073 (24.2) 1125 (23.5) 1237 (24.2) 711 (25.2)  
65-74 3779 (29.7) 1455 (30.4) 1460 (28.6) 864 (30.7)  
≥75 2949 (23.2) 1028 (21.5) 1236 (24.2) 685 (24.3)  
Female 3779 (29.7) 1385 (29.0) 1574 (30.8) 820 (29.1) 0.4
Place of residence      0.1
Urban 3489 (27.5) 1525 (31.9) 1316 (25.8) 648 (23.0)  
Rural 8266 (65.1) 3087 (64.5) 3166 (62.0) 2013 (71.5)  
Unrecorded 951 (7.5) 172 (3.6) 623 (12.2) 156 (5.5)  
Cardiac risk factors      
Current smoking 4406 (34.7) 1836 (38.4) 1659 (32.5) 911 (32.3) 0.03
Hypertension 5743 (45.2) 2252 (47.1) 2323 (45.5) 1168 (41.5) 0.3
Diabetes 2095 (16.5) 805 (16.8) 914 (17.9) 376 (13.4) 0.1
Medical histories      
Myocardial infarction 1369 (10.8) 466 (9.7) 639 (12.5) 264 (9.4) 0.008
Percutaneous coronary intervention 248 (2.0) 95 (2.0) 113 (2.2) 40 (1.4) 0.4
CABG 45 (0.4) 21 (0.4) 19 (0.4) 5 (0.2) 0.4
Stroke 1377 (10.8) 517 (10.8) 568 (11.1) 292 (10.4) 0.9
Chronic renal disease 2527 (19.9) 799 (16.7) 1076 (21.1) 652 (23.2) 0.02
Cancer 72 (0.6) 14 (0.5) 21 (0.4) 37 (0.8) 0.1
Presentation features      
Symptom onset to admission      0.5
≤6 hours 4838 (38.1) 1891 (39.5) 1925 (37.7) 1022 (36.3)  
6-12 hours 1290 (10.2) 477 (10.0) 525 (10.3) 288 (10.2)  
12-24 hours 1635 (12.9) 635 (13.3) 626 (12.3) 374 (13.3)  
>24 hours 4943 (38.9) 1781 (37.2) 2029 (39.8) 1133 (40.2)  
STEMI 10888 (85.7) 4190 (87.6) 4293 (84.1) 2405 (85.4) 0.07
Chest pain 11746 (92.4) 4421 (92.4) 4719 (92.4) 2606 (92.5) 0.9
Cardiogenic shock 475 (3.7) 190 (4.0) 175 (3.4) 110 (3.9) 0.6
Cardiac arrest 105 (0.8) 48 (1.0) 39 (0.8) 18 (0.6) 0.3
Pneumonia 1188 (9.4) 416 (8.7) 486 (9.5) 286 (10.2) 0.7
Exacerbated COPD 203 (1.6) 73 (1.5) 76 (1.5) 54 (1.9) 0.6
Acute stroke 114 (0.9) 41 (0.9) 43 (0.8) 30 (1.1) 0.6
eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2      
Mean ± std 84.6 ± 38.6 88.7 ± 37.4 82.9 ± 37.5 80.5 ± 42.0 0.008
>90 4210 (33.1) 1848 (38.6) 1630 (31.9) 732 (26.0) 0.0006
60-90 4158 (32.7) 1515 (31.7) 1792 (35.1) 851 (30.2)  
<60 2389 (18.8) 759 (15.9) 1017 (19.9) 613 (21.8)  
Unknown 1949 (15.3) 662 (13.8) 666 (13.1) 621 (22.0)  
Systolic blood pressure >180 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure >110 mmHg 671 (5.3) 227 (4.7) 297 (5.8) 147 (5.2) 0.5
Heart rate > 100 beats/min 1379 (10.9) 493 (10.3) 572 (11.2) 314 (11.2) 0.5
Outliers of outcome      
<1st percentile value (i.e. <2 days) 316 (2.5) 102 (2.1) 101 (2.0) 113 (4.0) 0.001
>99th percentile value (i.e. >42 days) 121 (1.0) 69 (1.4) 44 (0.9) 8 (0.3) < .0001
  1. IQR: interquartile range; std: standard deviation; CABG: coronary artery bypass graft; STEMI: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate.
  2. Numbers in the second to the fifth columns represent count (percentage), unless otherwise specified.