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Table 3 Left ventricular speckle tracking echocardiography parameters of healthy males

From: Increased myocardial dysfunction, dyssynchrony, and epicardial fat across the lifespan in healthy males

  Young Middle Older
  < 40 years old 40-65 years old > 65 years old
  (n = 14) (n = 13) (n = 13)
Longitudinal axis    
Strain (%) -20.6 (2.4) -19.3 (2.9) -15.7 (3.4)***###
Diastolic SR (%.sec-1) 1.5 (0.3) 1.3 (0.3) 1.1 (0.2)***#
Systolic SR (%.sec-1) -1.0 (0.2) -1.0 (0.2) -0.9 (0.2)
Base circumferential    
Strain (%) -16.5 (3.7) -16.8 (5.9) -15.8 (2.6)
Diastolic SR (%.sec-1) 1.5 (0.3) 1.6 (0.4) 1.2 (0.3)
Systolic SR (%.sec-1) -1.0 (0.2) -1.1 (0.3) -1.1 (0.3)
Apex circumferential    
Strain (%) -21.4 (2.7) -26.0 (5.8)* -26.8 (3.0)*
Diastolic SR (%.sec-1) 1.8 (0.3) 2.2 (0.9) 2.0 (0.4)
Systolic SR (%.sec-1) -1.2 (0.2) -1.5 (0.3)* -1.7 (0.3)*
Rotational mechanics    
Apical rotation (°) 4.1 (2.1) 6.4 (2.2)* 6.1 (2.1)*
Basal rotation (°) -4.6 (1.6) -5.5 (2.5) -6.4 (3.1)
Peak twist (°) 6.6 (2.2) 8.1 (3.6) 11.6 (2.1)*
Peak untwist-rate (°.sec-1) -65.0 (19.5) -82.9 (16.0) -92.4 (22.1)*
  1. Data are means (standard deviations). SR: Strain rate. *: p < 0.05 vs. Young; ***: p < 0.001 vs. Young; #: p < 0.05 vs. Middle; ###: p < 0.001 vs. Middle.