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Table 2 Haemodynamic and Doppler flow measurements in electronic cigarette users (ECIG, n = 40) and smokers (SM, n = 36), before and after device and cigarette use respectively

From: Acute effects of using an electronic nicotine-delivery device (electronic cigarette) on myocardial function: comparison with the effects of regular cigarettes

Parameter Before use After use Change P-valuea P-valueb
Systolic BP (mmHg)      
ECIG 123.9 ± 8.6 124.6 ± 9.9 0.7 ± 4.6 0.374 < 0.001
SM 123.0 ± 9.8 129.6 ± 9.2 6.6 ± 5.2 < 0.001  
P-valuec 0.653 0.025    
Diastolic BP (mmHg)      
ECIG 75.6 ± 6.1 78.5 ± 5.9 3.0 ± 3.6 < 0.001 0.079
SM 75.8 ± 5.6 80.2 ± 5.8 4.4 ± 3.3 < 0.001  
P-valuec 0.834 0.209    
Heart rate (beats/m)      
ECIG 67.1 ± 10.3 67.5 ± 10.6 0.4 ± 4.8 0.649 < 0.001
SM 67.5 ± 7.9 73.5 ± 6.8 5.9 ± 4.7 < 0.001  
P-valuec 0.841 0.005    
Pressure-rate product      
ECIG 8312 ± 1363 8397 ± 1462 84 ± 708 0.456 < 0.001
SM 8308 ± 1235 9556 ± 1084 1248 ± 840 < 0.001  
P-valuec 0.989 < 0.001    
E (cm/s)      
ECIG 70.1 ± 12.5 71.4 ± 13.2 1.2 ± 5.0 0.130 0.132
SM 72.9 ± 8.5 72.2 ± 10.2 -0.6 ± 6.1 0.565  
P-valuec 0.268 0.756    
A (cm/s)      
ECIG 51.1 ± 10.2 52.7 ± 9.8 1.6 ± 5.6 0.083 0.317
SM 50.4 ± 8.8 53.3 ± 9.1 2.9 ± 5.7 0.007  
P-valuec 0.774 0.764    
E/A      
ECIG 1.41 ± 0.29 1.37 ± 0.26 -0.03 ± 0.14 0.171 0.053
SM 1.49 ± 0.32 1.39 ± 0.30 -0.10 ± 0.16 0.001  
P-valuec 0.235 0.809    
DT (ms)      
ECIG 173 ± 11 174 ± 14 1 ± 8 0.581 0.570
SM 170 ± 16 172 ± 16 3 ± 10 0.086  
P-valuec 0.448 0.719    
IVRT (ms)      
ECIG 74.6 ± 9.5 73.6 ± 9.9 -1.0 ± 5.7 0.275 0.001
SM 73.0 ± 8.7 77.7 ± 13.5 5.6 ± 9.2 < 0.001  
P-valuec 0.450 0.132    
IVRTc (ms)      
ECIG 78.9 ± 11.8 77.7 ± 11.6 -1.2 ± 6.9 0.286 < 0.001
SM 77.3 ± 10.1 86.1 ± 16.4 10.4 ± 10.1 < 0.001  
P-valuec 0.524 0.011    
MPI      
ECIG 0.39 ± 0.07 0.38 ± 0.06 -0.01 ± 0.04 0.330 0.001
SM 0.40 ± 0.05 0.43 ± 0.06 0.03 ± 0.04 0.002  
P-valuec 0.355 0.001    
  1. BP, blood pressure; E, mitral flow early diastolic velocity; A, mitral flow late diastolic velocity; DT, deceleration time of early mitral flow; IVRT, isovolumetric relaxation time; IVRTc, IVRT corrected to heart rate; MPI, myocardial performance index estimated by Doppler flow echocardiography.
  2. aP-value for time effect.
  3. bRepeated measurements ANOVA. Effects reported are significant differences between the two groups in the degree of change in each particular variable.
  4. cP-value for group effect.