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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Acute effects of using an electronic nicotine-delivery device (electronic cigarette) on myocardial function: comparison with the effects of regular cigarettes

Characteristic Smokers (n = 36) Electronic cigarette users (n = 40) P-value
Males n (%) 32 (88.9) 36 (90) 1.000a
Age (years) 36 ± 5 35 ± 5 0.764
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.8 ± 2.3 25.3 ± 2.4 0.304
Body surface area (m2) 2.03 ± 0.15 2.00 ± 0.18 0.322
Smoking duration (years) 16 ± 5 17 ± 5 0.571
Cigarette consumption (n/d)b 20 (20–26) 30 (20–35) 0.004c
Brinkman index 371 ± 132 493 ± 228 0.005
Electronic cigarette use durationd   6 ± 4  
Systolic BP (mmHg) 123.0 ± 9.8 123.9 ± 8.6 0.653
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 75.8 ± 5.6 75.6 ± 6.1 0.834
Heart rate (beats/m) 67.5 ± 7.9 67.1 ± 10.3 0.841
Pressure-rate product 8308 ± 1235 8312 ± 1363 0.989
Glucose (mmol/l) 4.51 ± 0.34 4.44 ± 0.35 0.410
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.85 ± 0.21 4.77 ± 0.30 0.177
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.99 ± 0.23 2.91 ± 0.26 0.175
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.38 ± 0.15 1.38 ± 0.18 0.943
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.05 ± 0.14 1.04 ± 0.18 0.693
Ejection fraction (%) 63 ± 5 62 ± 4 0.463
LA diameter (mm) 35 ± 4 34 ± 3 0.359
LV mass index (g/m2) 64 ± 10 65 ± 13 0.663
  1. BP, blood pressure, LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LA, left atrium.
  2. aFisher’s exact test; bValues expressed as median (interquartile range); cMann-Whitney test; dDuration expressed in months.