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Table 2 Patient populations and study characteristics

From: The impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on the incidence of cardiovascular events and complications in peripheral arterial disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Population Intervention
  Age (years) BMI (kg/m2) Diagnosis of PAD Medication/therapy Co-morbidities Omega-3 PUFA (g/day) Comparator (g/day) Co-intervention Duration
Gans 1990 [37] 66.1 ± 8.2 NR Treadmill testing for IC classification; IC stable for ≥ 1 yr Excluded patients on lipid-lowering or platelet-active drugs None reported EPA (1.8) + DHA (1.2) Corn oil (3.0) None 16 wk
Leng 1998 [34] 65.7 ± 7.1 26.7 ± 4.2 Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire; IC stable for ≥ 6 mth; ABI < 0.9 Included patients taking aspirin Excluded patients with critical ischemia, previous or impending surgery, unstable angina or MI, or severe concurrent illnesses EPA (0.18-0.27) Sunflower oil (2.0 – 3.0) Gamma-linolenic acid 2 yr
Carrero 2005 [35] 64.0 ± 9.0 27.9 ± 3.9 Presence of IC; ABI < 0.7 Excluded patients eligible for vascular surgery; excluded patients taking statins Excluded patients with history of cardiac events or with endocrine or metabolic disturbances. Included patients who were smokers, had T2D or hypertension EPA (0.2) + DHA (0.13) + ALA (0.06) Placebo (dairy product) Vitamins B6 and E, folate, oleic acid 1 yr
Carrero 2006 [36] 65.5 ± 9.5 27.7 ± 3.4 Presence of IC; ABI < 0.7 Excluded patients eligible for vascular surgery; excluded patients taking statins Excluded patients with history of cardiac events or with endocrine or metabolic disturbances. Included patients who were smokers, had T2D or hypertension EPA (0.2) + DHA (0.13) + ALA (0.06) Placebo (dairy product) Vitamins B6 and E, folate, oleic acid 1 yr
Ishikawa 2010 [38] 65.2 ± 7.4 23.3 ± 2.8 Presence of IC; physical findings (e.g. ulcer) and ABI All patients included were taking statins Hyperlipidemia (total serum cholesterol) EPA (1.8) No treatment Simvastatin or Pravastatin up to 5 yr
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD. ABI: ankle-brachial index; ALA: alpha-linolenic acid; BMI: body mass index; DHA: docosahexaenoic acid; EPA: eicosapentaenoic acid; IC: intermittent claudication; MI: myocardial infarction; T2D: type 2 diabetes.