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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants according to uric acid quartiles

From: Association between serum uric acid levels and cardiovascular disease in middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals

Characteristics Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P value
(n = 2428) (n = 2114) (n = 1986) (n = 1982)
≤0.2 0.21-0.24 0.25-0.29 ≥0.30
MetS (%) 927 (38.2) 1112 (52.6) 1210 (60.9) 1410 (71.1) <0.001
Uric acid (mmol/L) 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 0.22 (0.22-0.24) 0.27 (0.26-0.28) 0.34 (0.31-0.37) <0.001
Male n (%) 316 (13.02) 500 (23.65) 705 (35.52) 1205 (60.80) <0.001
Age (yrs)b 53.29 ± 7.97 55.72 ± 7.75 57.25 ± 7.45 57.93 ± 7.46 <0.001
Smoking (yes) 413 (17.02) 411 (19.44) 501 (25.23) 680 (34.31) <0.001
Alcohol (yes) 524 (21.59) 514 (24.31) 579 (29.15) 852 (42.99) <0.001
SBP (mmHg) 125 ± 20 129 ± 21 132 ± 20 135 ± 19 <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 78 ± 10 80 ± 10 81 ± 11 83 ± 10 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.41 ± 3.19 24.76 ± 8.45 25.53 ± 11.29 25.79 ± 4.49 <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 80 ± 10 84 ± 12 86 ± 10 89 ± 9 <0.001
Hip circumference (cm) 94.07 ± 7.40 95.85 ± 7.00 96.85 ± 6.78 98.09 ± 6.89 <0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 6.05 ± 1.50 6.39 ± 1.89 6.50 ± 1.80 6.53 ± 1.61 <0.001
P2hPG (mmol/L) 7.95 ± 3.49 8.88 ± 4.16 9.26 ± 4.04 9.36 ± 3.91 <0.001
HbA1C 5.84 ± 0.97 6.01 ± 1.10 6.05 ± 1.07 6.02 ± 0.94 0.021
Triglycerides (mmol/L)c 1.09 (0.82-1.52) 1.36 (0.98-1.93) 1.49 (1.06-2.24) 1.86 (1.29-2.67) <0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.59 ± 0.99 4.79 ± 0.99 4.81 ± 1.01 4.88 ± 1.05 <0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.56 ± 0.75 2.66 ± 0.76 2.72 ± 0.79 2.72 ± 0.78 <0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.33 ± 0.33 1.27 ± 0.31 1.22 ± 0.31 1.17 ± 0.30 <0.001
Physical activity      0.191
Low 1795 (73.96) 1538 (72.75) 1453 (73.16) 1395 (70.38)  
Moderate 487 (20.07) 435 (20.58) 397 (19.99) 438 (22.10)  
High 145 (5.97) 141 (6.67) 136 (6.85) 149 (7.52)  
Education      0.061
0-6 520 (21.43) 516 (24.41) 497 (25.03) 464 (23.41)  
7-9 1217 (50.14) 1048 (49.57) 989 (47.80) 988 (49.85)  
≥10 690 (28.43) 550 (26.02) 500 (27.17) 530 (26.74)  
Stroke 69 (2.84) 84 (3.97) 99 (4.98) 168 (8.48) <0.001
Coronary heart disease 149 (6.14) 171 (8.09) 233 (11.73) 379 (19.12) <0.001
Hypertension 1029 (42.40) 1109 (52.46) 1213 (61.08) 1386 (69.93) <0.001
Diabetes mellitus 319 (13.14) 453 (21.43) 574 (28.90) 622 (31.38) <0.001
Anti-hypertension medications 342 (14.09) 351 (16.60) 394 (19.84) 448 (22.60) <0.001
Anti-diabetic medications 110 (4.53) 111 (5.25) 140 (7.05) 119 (6.00) 0.003
Lipid-lowering medications 65 (2.68) 71 (3.36) 62 (3.12) 57 (2.88) 0.571
  1. SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; BMI, body mass index; P2hPG, postprandial 2-hour plasma glucose; HbA1C, Glycated hemoglobin; LDL, Low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high--density lipoprotein.
  2. aData are presented as mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or number (percent); P value was calculated after adjustment for age, gender.
  3. bNot adjusted for itself.
  4. cThis variables was log transformed before analysis.