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Table 1 Sample characterization

From: Comparison of clinical outcomes in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement with mechanical or biological substitutes: a 20 years cohort

Variable Sample (n = 352) Mechanical valve (n = 247) Biological valve (n = 105) p
Mean age ± SD 52.3 ± 13.4 50.8 ± 12.5 55.8 ± 14.9 0.003
Age group - n (%)     
≤ 50 years 161 (45.7) 118 (47.8) 43 (41.0) < 0.001
51 - 60 years 99 (28.1) 77 (31.2)* 22 (21.0)
61 - 70 years 58 (16.5) 38 (15.4) 20 (19.0)
≥ 71 years 34 (9.7) 14 (5.7) 20 (19.0)*
Gender - n (%)     
Male 165 (46.9) 116 (47.0) 49 (46.7) 1.000
Female 187 (53.1) 131 (53.0) 56 (53.3)
BMI (Kg/m2) - Mean ± SD 24.4 ± 4.3 24.8 ± 4.5 23.4 ± 3.8 0.003
Obesity** - n (%) 33 (9.4) 27 (10.9) 6 (5.7) 0.181
Morbid obesity*** - n (%) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.4) 0 (0.0) 1.000
Functional class (NYHA) - n (%)     
I-II 203 (57.7) 143 (57.9) 60 (57.1) 0.990
III-IV 149 (42.3) 104 (42.1) 45 (42.9)
Pathology – n (%)     0.719
Failure 155 (44.0) 104 (42.1) 51 (48.6)
Stenosis 83 (23.6) 61 (24.7) 22 (21.0)
DI with predominant stenosis 84 (23.9) 60 (24.3) 24 (22.9)
DI with predominant failure 30 (8.5) 22 (8.9) 8 (7.6)
Rhythm ECG – n (%)     
Sinus 147 (42.0) 114 (46.3)* 33 (31.7)  
Atrial fibrillation 198 (56.6) 129 (52.4) 69 (66.3)* 0.039
Others 5 (1.4) 3 (1.2) 2 (1.9)  
Chronic atrial fibrillation - n (%) 169 (48.0) 112 (45.3) 57 (54.3) 0.156
Diabetes mellitus - n (%) 25 (7.1) 18 (7.3) 7 (6.7) 1.000
COPD - n (%) 56 (15.9) 39 (15.8) 17 (16.2) 1.000
Stroke - n (%) 24 (6.8) 17 (6.9) 7 (6.7) 1.000
SAH - n (%) 144 (40.9) 105 (42.5) 39 (37.1) 0.413
Creatinine > 2 mg/dl – n (%) 17 (4.8) 9 (3.6) 8 (7.6) 0.187
Dialysis - n (%) 3 (0.9) 1 (0.4) 2 (1.9) 0.213
Emergency surgery - n (%) 22 (6.3) 10 (4.0) 12 (11.4) 0.017
Endocarditis - n (%) 36 (10.2) 22 (8.9) 14 (13.3) 0.288
Rheumatic fever - n (%) 153 (43.5) 112 (45.3) 41 (39.0) 0.331
  1. SD, standard deviation; BMI, body mass index; NYHA, New York Heart Association class; DI, double injury, ECG, electrocardiogram; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; SAH, systemic arterial hypertension.
  2. *Statistically significant association by the adjusted residuals test at 5% significance.
  3. **BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; ***BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2.