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Table 1 Main characteristics of study population by depression and depression length

From: Blood pressure values and depression in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk

  Depression levels Time with depression diagnostic
  No depression Untreated depression Treated depressiona   ≤ 5 years 6-10 years ≥ 11 years  
  (N = 5027) (N = 569) (N = 358)   (N = 268) (N = 159) (N = 500)  
Characteristics of participants % % % P-value % % P-value P-value
Age (years) 67.3 (6.2) 66.9(6.0) 66.8(5.7) 0.137 66.4(6.0) 66.7(6.1) 67.1(5.8) 0.290
Sex (Women) 56.0 79.8 84.6 0.001 82.5 78.0 82.4 0.881
Educational attainment         
High level 7.6 4.9 6.4 0.003 7.1 7.5 4.0 0.280
Middle level 15.9 13.7 11.7   11.6 12.6 13.8  
Low level 76.6 81.4 81.8   81.3 79.9 82.2  
Antidepressant treatment a --- --- --- --- 45.9 37.7 35.0 0.004
Antianxiety or sedative treatment b 14.8 37.8 61.5) 0.001 45.5 48.4 47.2 0.700
Body Mass Index( Kg/m 2 ) 30.1(3.8) 30.8(4.2) 30.5(3.6) 0.001 30.5(4.0) 30.8(3.8) 30.8(4.0) 0.521
Life styles         
Smokingc 38.3 24.6 23.5 0.001 22.8 24.5 24.8 0.543
Low adherence to the MeDiet patternd 45.8 48.0 50.8 0.042 47.4 45.3 51.2 0.256
Sedentarye 35.0 44.6 50.0 0.001 47.8 45.3 46.6 0.800
High alcohol intake patternf 21.7 16.2 10.3 0.001 14.6 15.1 13.2 0.567
Hypertension comorbidity         
Diabetesg 43.5 41.7 36.3 0.009 42.2 44.7 36.6 0.094
Dyslipidaemiah 73.7 76.4 83.2 0.001 81.0 73.6 79.8 0.894
Blood pressure         
Optimal control of blood pressurei 26.5 33.9 36.3 0.001 31.3 41.5 34.6 0.520
Systolic blood pressure( mmHg) 151.1(19.0) 147.8(18.9) 150.4(18.9) 0.001 146.1(17.0) 145.8(18.7) 146.7(18.9) 0.832
Diastolic blood pressure( mmHg) 83.7(10.2) 83.1(10.0) 82.6(9.4) 0.052 83.7(9.6) 83.3(10.4) 82.3(9.6) 0.143
Antihypertensive treatmentj 80.6 85.8 87.2 0.001 85.5 85.5 86.8 0.680
  1. aTaking at least one of the following drugs: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors, Monoamine oxidase A inhibitors, antidepressants in combination with psycholeptics, others antidepressant agents.
  2. bTaking at least one of the following drugs: benzodiazepine derivatives, azaspirodecanedione derivatives, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) analogues, natural antianxiety agents, ethanolamine derivatives, other anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives agents.
  3. cCurrent smoker.
  4. dAdherence to Mediterranean diet pattern < 9 points (median) on a scale of 0–14.
  5. ePhysical activity in leisure time < 1000 kcal/week in last year.
  6. fAlcohol consumption more than 20gr. daily in men and 10 gr. daily in women.
  7. gDiagnosis of diabetes.
  8. hDiagnosis of dyslipidaemia.
  9. iSystolic blood pressure <140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <90 mmHg.
  10. jTaking at least one of the following antihypertensive drugs: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitors), diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, Beta-blockers, α-blockers, or other antihypertensive drugs.
  11. Mean - Standard Deviation, p - value: ANOVA F test.