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Table 2 Direct logistic regression analyses to predict the association between smoking and depression (MDD, ’ADD’ and T2 Depression)

From: Tobacco smoking predicts depression and poorer quality of life in heart disease

  T1 MDD (N = 193) T1 ‘ADD’ (N = 193) T2 Depression (N = 189)
  B SE Wald OR 95% CI      95% CI      95% CI
Variable   Lower Upper B SE Wald OR Lower Lower B SE Wald OR Lower Upper
Male -.24 .64 .14 .79 .23 2.77 .19 .59 .10 1.21 .38 3.83 .57 .70 .65 1.76 .44 6.97
Married .79 .74 1.15 2.21 .52 9.43 .48 .63 .596 1.62 .47 5.56 .67 .74 .81 1.96 .46 8.39
Income .57 .61 .86 1.76 .53 5.82 .12 .54 .05 1.12 .39 3.24 -.20 .65 .09 .82 .23 2.96
LVEF −18.86 1.10 .00 .00 .00 . -.42 1.22 .12 .65 .06 7.12 −18.51 1.13 .00 .00 .00 .
BMI -.04 .06 .41 .96 .85 1.09 .04 .05 .74 1.05 .95 1.15 -.02 .07 1.00 .98 .85 1.12
Diabetes -.35 .66 .29 .70 .19 2.54 -.51 .58 .80 .60 .19 1.85 -.65 .71 .84 .52 .13 2.09
Smoking 1.46 .69 4.52* 4.30 1.12 16.46 2.08 .63 11.05** 8.03 2.35 27.46 .16 .71 .05 1.17 .29 4.69
Alcohol - excessive -.70 .66 1.13 .50 .14 1.81 -.07 .55 .02 .93 .32 2.71 .05 .64 .01 1.05 .30 3.71
History of depression .94 .53 3.13 2.56 .90 7.23 .75 .46 2.65 2.12 .86 5.22 .68 .56 1.51 1.98 .67 5.88
GAD 1.87 .60 9.56** 6.50 1.98 21.09 1.81 .55 10.74** 6.09 2.07 17.93 .05 .69 .01 1.06 .27 4.11
Neuroticism .08 .04 4.37* 1.08 1.01 1.16 .09 .03 7.67** 1.09 1.03 1.16 .08 .04 4.32* 1.09 1.01 1.17
Social support .01 .03 .15 1.01 .96 1.06 .01 .02 .20 1.01 .97 1.05 -.06 .02 6.35* .94 .90 .99
Functional status -.07 .04 2.64 .93 .86 1.01 -.08 .04 5.15* .92 .86 .99 -.11 .05 5.76* .90 .82 .98
CABG .91 .53 2.94 2.49 .88 7.04 1.10 .45 6.07* 3.01 1.25 7.24 1.23 .57 4.64* 3.43 1.12 10.54
Constant −3.83 3.25 1.38 .02    −5.43 2.69 4.06 .00    .96 3.06 1.00 2.62   
  1. ADD = Any depressive disorder; BMI  body mass index; CABG = Coronary artery bypass graft surgery; GAD = Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Income = Annual household income ≤ AU$20 000; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction <30%; MDD = Major Depressive Disorder.
  2. *P < .05 **P < .01 *** P < .001.