Effect of RAGE blockade and ROS inhibition on osteoblastic differentiation and oxidative stress signaling pathways in rat VSMCs calcification accelerated by AGEs. (A) ALP activity. (B) Calcium content. (C) ROS generation (×200). (D) Nox1, RAGE and Cu/Zn SOD protein expression. Data were from three separate experiments. * p<0.05 vs BSA, # p<0.05 vs AGE-BSA.