Effects of AGEs on ALP activity, superoxide production, and protein expression of Nox1 and Cu/Zn SOD on calcification of rat VSMCs induced by β-GP. VSMCs were treated with various concentrations of AGEs (BSA, 50, 100, 200, 400 μg·mL-1) for 24 h. (A) ALP activity. (B) Cellular levels of superoxide. (C) Protein expression of Nox1 and Cu/Zn SOD. These results were obtained from at least three independent measurements. * p<0.05 versus BSA, # p<0.05 versus 100 μg·mL-1AGE-BSA.