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Table 1 Characteristics of patients by smoking status

From: Association between smoking status and the parameters of vascular structure and function in adults: results from the EVIDENT study

  Nonsmokers (n = 747) Former smokers (n = 469) Present smokers (n = 337) p value
Age (years)*¥ 56.14 (65.09-43.64) 55.69 (64.44-46.71) 48.24 (56.08-37.25) <0.001
Males (%) 212 (28.4) 271 (57.8) 133 (39.5) <0.001
Hypertension (%) 307 (41.1) 219 (46.7) 103 (30.6) <0.001
Diabetes (%) 79 (10.6) 65 (13.9) 34 (10.1) 0.145
Dyslipidemia (%) 214 (28.6) 177 (37.7) 82 (24.3) <0.001
Obesity (%) 161 (21.6) 114 (24.3) 62 (18.4) 0.124
Antihypertensive drugs (%) 223 (29.9) 162 (34.5) 66 (19.6) <0.001
Lipid-lowering drugs (%) 126 (16.9) 122 (26.0) 48 (14.2) <0.001
Antidiabetic drugs (%) 52 (7.0) 46 (9.8) 25 (7.4) 0.187
Office SBP (mmHg)*¥ 123.75 (134.63-113.50) 125.50 (138.00-114.50) 121.25 (131.38-109.13) <0.001
Office DBP (mmHg) 76.50 (83.50-70.50) 77.00 (83.38-70.00) 75.50 (82.50-70.00) 0.377
Office heart rate (bpm)*¥# 71.50 (78.50-64.50) 69.50 (76.50-61.13) 75.00 (82.63-67.00) <0.001
Central SBP (mmHg)*¥ 124 (135–114) 125 (137–115) 121 (132–110) 0.002
Central DBP (mmHg) 76 (83–70) 77 (84–70) 75 (82–68) 0.188
BMI (kg/m2)*¥ 26.67 (29.56-24.05) 27.07 (29.96-24.90) 25.64 (28.52-22.90) <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) ¥# 92 (100–84) 95 (104–88) 91.00 (99–82) <0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 215.41 ± 38.77 213.36 ± 39.10 210.74 ± 39.28 0.192
Triglycerides (mg/dL)* 95 (133–69) 96 (136–73) 104 (147–75) 0.026
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 133.85 ± 36.78 133.18 ± 34.89 132.36 ± 36.75 0.827
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)*# 59.00 (70.00-49.00) 56.00 (67.00-47.00) 54.00 (64.75-45.00) <0.001
Mean IMT (mm) (n = 265) ¥ 0.68 ± 0.10 0.70 ± 0.11 0.65 ± 0.11 0.045
Maximum IMT (mm) (n = 265) ¥ 0.83 ± 0.12 0.86 ± 0.13 0.81 ± 0.13 0.042
PWV (m/sec) (n = 265) 7.10 (8.60-6.38) 7.30 (8.95-6.35) 6.65 (7.95-5.57) 0.032
PAIx75 (%) #¥ 89 (101–78) 86 (97–75) 90 (103–77) 0.003
ABI #¥ 1.17 ± 0.13 1.19 ± 0.14 1.16 ± 0.14 0.005
  1. Normally distributed continuous variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, while non-normally distributed variables are presented as median and 75–25th percentile. Frequency distribution was used in categorical variables.
  2. Obesity: BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m2or Waist circumference ≥ 88 cm in women and ≥ 102 cm in men. SBP: Systolic blood pressure; DBP: Diastolic blood pressure; BMI: body mass index; HDL: high density lipoprotein; LDL: lowdensity lipoprotein; IMT: Intima Media Thickness; PWV: pulse wave velocity; PAIx75: Peripheral or radial augmentation index adjusted for heart rate at 75 bpm, ABI: ankle brachial index.
  3. *Differences between present and nonsmokers, ¥: Differences between present and former smokers, #: Differences between former and nonsmokers.