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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Association of resting heart rate with cardiovascular function: a cross-sectional study in 522 Finnish subjects

  Resting heart rate tertiles
  1 2 3
  n = 172 n = 176 n = 174
Resting heart rate (1/min) 54 (53–54) 62 (62–63)* 75 (73–75)*
Age (years) 46 (44–48) 46 (44–47) 46 (44–47)
Sex (M/F) 101/71 79/97 81/93
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.2 (25.7–26.7) 26.5 (25.8–27.1) 27.3 (26.6–28.1)*
Waist circumference (cm) 92 (90–93) 92 (90–94) 94 (92–96)
Smoking (pack years) 2.3 (1.2–3.4) 1.8 (0.9–2.6) 3.5 (2.0–5.0)
Alcohol (drinks/week) 4 (3–5) 4 (3–5) 5 (4–6)
Leukocyte count (1*109/l) 5.4 (5.2–5.6) 5.9 (5.6–6.1)* 6.1 (5.8–6.4)*
Haematocrit (%) 42 (42–43) 41 (41–42) 42 (41–43)
C-reactive protein (mg/l) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 1.6 (1.2–2.0) 2.2 (1.6–2.9)*
Creatinine (μmol/l) 77 (75–79) 72 (70–74)* 71 (70–73)*
Estimated GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 112 (109–114) 111 (110–113) 112 (110–114)
Cystatin C (mg/l) 0.83 (0.81–0.85) 0.82 (0.80–0.84) 0.86 (0.83–0.88)
Sodium (mmol/l) 140 (140–141) 140 (140–141) 140 (140–140)
Potassium (mmol/l) 3.8 (3.8–3.9) 3.8 (3.8–3.9) 3.8 (3.7–3.8)
Fasting plasma    
  Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.2 (5.0–5.4) 5.0 (4.8–5.1)* 5.2 (5.1–5.4)
  Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 1.3 (1.2–1.5)*
  HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.7 (1.6–1.7) 1.6 (1.5–1.6) 1.5 (1.5–1.6)
  LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.0 (2.9–3.2) 2.9 (2.7–3.0) 3.1 (3.0–3.3)
  Glucose (mmol/l) 5.4 (5.3–5.5) 5.4 (5.3–5.4) 5.5 (5.4–5.6)
  1. Values are means and 95% confidence intervals; *p < 0.05 vs. tertile 1, p < 0.05 vs. tertile 2, analysis of variance with Tukey HSD post hoc test; p < 0.05 for distributions between the tertiles, χ2 test; GFR = glomerular filtration rate using the Rule formula [28].