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Table 5 Difference in left ventricular rotational parameters between participants with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy compared to healthy controls

From: Heart Disease and Left Ventricular Rotation – A Systematic Review and Quantitative Summary

Study Details Matched Controls Apical Rot Basal Rot Twist Time to Peak Twist Peak Untwist Rate Untwist Rate Time to Peak Untwist Early Untwist Rate Additional Notes
Chang et al. 2010 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 23 2D-STE*** Yes   Peak untwist rate P-value = 0.07
Buakhamsri et al. 2009 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 19 2D-STE*** Yes          
van Dalen et al. 2009 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 18 2D-STE*** Yes     HCM were separated into groups with either sigmoidal or reverse septal morphology. Both sub-groups had increased basal rotation. Only the sigmoidal group had increased apical rotation and twist.
Carasso et al. 2010 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 18 2D-VVI** Yes          Twist time was reduced and untwist time increased in those with HCM.
Carasso et al. 2008 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 18 2D-VVI** Yes       Mid-level rotation was in the opposite direction as compared to healthy controls (clockwise instead of counter clockwise).
Wang et al. 2009 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 17 2D-STE*** Yes          Time to untwisting was lowest in controls, elevated in HCM group and increased again in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy group.
Notomi et al. 2006 PCT Level 2 D&B = 17 2D-STE*** Yes          At rest, no significant differences were reported. During exercise, peak untwisting velocity and peak systolic twist increased in control group but not in HCM group.
van Dalen et al. 2009 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 17 2D-STE*** Yes     Similar to above, HCM were separated into groups with either sigmoidal or reverse septal morphology. Both sub-groups had increased basal rotation. Only the sigmoidal group had increased apical rotation and twist.
Abozguia et al. 2010 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 14 2D-STE** Yes       In those with non-obstructive HCM there was a delay in reaching 25% untwist.
Maier et al. 1992 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 13 MRI Tagging N/A        
Young et al. 1994 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 10 MRI Tagging N/A       Twist was calculated by subtracting the base rotation from apical rotation.
  1. D & B; Downs and Black score, MRI; magnetic resonance imaging, 2D-STE; two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, 2D-VVI; two dimensional velocity vector imaging, *** indicates that mitral leaflets and luminal obliteration were used for identifying the basal and apical images respectively, ** indicates that mitral leaflets and location inferior to papillary muscle were used for identifying the basal and apical images respectively, Apical Rot; apical rotation, Basal Rot; basal rotation, HCM; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ; significant increase in heart disease group as compared to healthy controls, significant decrease in heart disease group as compared to healthy controls, ; no significant difference between heart disease group as compared to healthy controls.