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Table 4 Difference in left ventricular rotational parameters between participants with prior myocardial infarction as compared to healthy controls

From: Heart Disease and Left Ventricular Rotation – A Systematic Review and Quantitative Summary

Study Details Matched Controls Apical Rotation Basal Rotation Twist Torsion Twist Rate Time to Peak Twist Time to Peak Untwist Additional Notes
Govind et al. 2010 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 23 2D-STE*** Yes      Participants with MI and normal EF (>40%) had elevated twist and apical rotation rate as compared to participants with MI and low EF (<40%).
Bansal et al. 2008 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 17 2D-STE** No       Increasing number of infarcts was related to decreased basal rotation and torsion but not apical rotation.
Takeuchi et al. 2007 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 17 2D-STE** Yes ↔/↓ ↔/↓   ↔/↓ ↔/↑ Anterior MI participants were divided into those with normal (≥45%) and reduced (<45%) EF. Only reduced EF participants had reduced twist and apical rotation as well as time to peak untwist as compared to controls.
Nagel et al. 2000 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 15 MRI Tagging No     Apical rotation is reduced in those with anterolateral MI but no difference between groups in mid level or basal rotation occurred. In a subgroup of anterolateral MI participants with accompanying LV aneurism, there is a complete loss of apical rotation and a reversal of mid level rotation that rotates with the base instead of the apex as in healthy controls.
Garot et al. 2002 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 15 MRI Tagging No         Only mid-ventricle (between apex and base) rotation was reported. Mid-ventricle rotation was reduced in those with MI. Those with normal EF (>48%) had higher rotation than those with low EF (<48%).
Setser et al. 2007 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 14 MRI Tagging No      Ischemic cardiomyopathy/MI compared to healthy controls.
  1. D & B; Downs and Black score, MRI; magnetic resonance imaging, 2D-STE; two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, *** indicates that mitral leaflets and luminal obliteration were used for identifying the basal and apical images respectively, ** indicates that mitral leaflets and location inferior to papillary muscle were used for identifying the basal and apical images respectively, LV; left ventricle, EF; ejection fraction, ; significant increase in heart disease group as compared to healthy controls, significant decrease in heart disease group as compared to healthy controls, ; no significant difference between heart disease group as compared to healthy controls.