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Table 4 Characteristics of the study sample of patients stratified according to IMT

From: Heart rate variability and target organ damage in hypertensive patients

  Normal Thickening Plaque P Values
     ANOVA or χ2 Normal vs Thickening Normal vs Plaque Thickening vs Plaque
Age (years) 47.3 ± 13.3 57.0 ± 9.6 65.9 ± 9.8 <0.001 0.004 <0.001 0.001
Sex (male/female) 16/10 10/12 101/51 0.157    
Family history of hypertension (yes/no) 16/10 18/4 79/73 0.026    
Family history of stroke (yes/no) 4/22 6/16 29/123 0.564    
Smokers (yes/ex/no) 4/3/19 6/2/14 25/37/90 0.242    
Diabetes (yes/no) 2/24 1/21 17/135 0.572    
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 76.5 ± 10.8 73.4 ± 18.6 75.8 ± 11.1 0.643 1 1 1
Systolic BP (mmHg) 131.5 ± 19.2 124.1 ± 33.2 134.8 ± 21.1 0.106 0.768 1 0.113
Pulse pressure (mmHg) 55.0 ± 14.9 50.6 ± 19.9 59.0 ± 17.8 0.086 1 0.856 0.117
Fasting blood glucose (mmHg) 98.0 ± 20.7 95.7 ± 22.0 104.5 ± 24.7 0.154 1 0.601 0.321
Total Cholesterol (mg/dl) 182.0 ± 38.0 192.0 ± 39.1 185.6 ± 41.4 0.687 1 1 1
BMI (kg/m2) 28.8 ± 5.4 27.3 ± 3.7 27.6 ± 4.6 0.395 0.747 0.596 1
Beta-blockers (yes/no) 15/11 6/16 46/106 0.019    
Alphabeta-blockers (yes/no) 1/25 3/19 17/135 0.465    
Alpha-blockers (yes/no) 1/25 2/20 13/139 0.702    
Diuretics (yes/no) 9/17 8/14 70/82 0.429    
ACE inhibitor (yes/no) 10/16 8/14 57/95 0.989    
Dihydropyridine (yes/no) 7/19 4/18 41/111 0.675    
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 84.1 ± 17.5 81.2 ± 17.8 75.2 ± 19.1 0.045 1 0.077 0.479
Renal involvement 9/15/2 6/13/3 33/91/28 0.502    
IMT (mm) 0.89 ± 0.11 1.19 ± 0.08 2.62 ± 1.61 <0.001 1 <0.001 <0.001
LVMi g/m2 109.6 ± 19.0 126.7 ± 33.2 134.6 ± 30.9 <0.001 0.149 <0.001 0.744
Left Ventricular hypertrophy (no/yes) 20/6 11/11 49/103 <0.001    
  1. Data are expressed as mean and standard deviation for continuous variables (i.e. age) and as number of patients per each group for categorical variable (i.e. gender).
  2. The p-value refers to ANOVA and post-hoc comparison with Bonferroni corrections for continuous variables and to χ2 for categorical variables.