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Table 5 Bivariate and multivariate analysis of independent factors associated with DRPs among hospitalized heart failure patients at JMC from September 30, 2020, to May 28, 2021

From: Drug-related problems and its predictors among hospitalized heart failure patients at Jimma Medical Center, South West Ethiopia: prospective interventional study

Variable DRP status COR p value AOR p value
Yes No
Sex (ref.female) 88 (56.1%) 34 (42.5%) 1.73 (1.00–2.97) 0.049 1.17 (0.56–2.45) 0.681
Age group       
 ≤ 47 72 (45.9%) 34 (42.5%)     
 48–63 50 (31.8%) 21 (26.3%) 1.12 (0.59–2.16) 0.725 1.06 (0.49–2.29) 0.875
 > 64 35 (22.3%) 25 (31.2%) 0.66 (0.34–1.27) 0.216 0.52 (0.24–1.12) 0.097
Residence (ref.no) 110 (70.1%) 61 (76.2%) 0.73 (0.39–1.35) 0.32   
Cost coverage method       
 Insurance 49 (31.2%) 22 (27.5%)     
 Out of pocket 108 (68.8%) 58 (72.5%) 0.84 (0.46–1.52) 0.56   
 Khat chewing (ref.no) 50 (31.8%) 12 (15%) 2.65 (1.32–5.33) 0.006 3.25 (1.46–7.23) 0.004
 Alcohol drinking (ref.no) 24 (15.3%) 7 (8.7%) 1.88 (0.77–4.58) 0.16 1.48 (0.49–4.41) 0.478
 Cigarette smoking (ref.no) 28 (17.8%) 10 (12.5%) 1.52 (0.69–3.31) 0.29   
NYHA Class       
 II 9 (5.7%) 4 (5%)     
 III 36 (22.9%) 22 (27.5%) 0.73 (0.20–2.65) 0.63   
 IV 112 (71.4%) 54 (67.5) 0.92 (0.27–3.13) 0.896   
Patient type       
 Newly diagnosed HF 86 (54.8%) 48 (60) 0.81 (0.47–1.39) 0.443   
 Known HF 71 (45.2%) 32 (40)     
 Serum creatinine (> 1.2) 49 (31.2) 20 (25) 1.36 (0.74–2.50) 0.321   
AST       
 > 40 38 (24.2%) 16 (20) 1.28 (0.66–2.47) 0.466   
ALT       
 > 40 28 (17.8%) 15 (18.8%) 0.94 (0.46–1.91) 0.868   
Comorbid condition (ref.no) 114 (72.6%) 32 (40%) 3.98 (2.25–7.02) < 0.001 2.59 (1.35–4.96) 0.004
Medication number       
 < 5 medications 38 (24.2%) 48 (60%)     
 ≥ 5 medications 119 (75.8%) 32 (40) 4.69 (2.64–8.37)  < 0.001 2.94 (1.54–5.61) 0.001
Hospital stay       
 < 18 days 72 (45.9) 61 (76.1)     
 ≥ 18 days 85 (54.1) 19 (23.7) 3.79 (2.07–6.93) < 0.001 3.77 (1.93–7.37) < 0.001
  1. The predictors that are statistically significant in bold