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Table 3 Causes of DRPs among hospitalized heart failure patients at JMC from September 30, 2020, to May 28, 2021

From: Drug-related problems and its predictors among hospitalized heart failure patients at Jimma Medical Center, South West Ethiopia: prospective interventional study

Cause domain, total = 327 Frequency (%)
C1: Drug selection causes 109 (33.33)
 New indication for drug treatment 67 (61.47)
 Inappropriate drug according to guidelines 19 (17.43)
 Contra-indicated 7 (6.42)
 No indication for drug 6 (5.50)
 Inappropriate combination of drugs, drugs, and foods 6 (5.50)
 Inappropriate duplication of therapeutic agents 4 (3.68)
C2: Drug form causes 33 (10.09)
 Inappropriate drug form 33 (100)
C3: Dose selection causes 67 (20.49)
 Dosage regimen not too frequent 32 (47.76)
 Drug dose too high 17 (25.37)
 Drug dose too low 10 (14.93)
 Dosage regimen too frequent 8 (11.94)
C4: treatment duration causes 1 (0.31)
 Duration of treatment too long 1 (100)
C5: Dispensing causes 7 (2.14)
 Prescribed drug not available 5 (71.43)
 Necessary information not available 2 (28.57)
C6: Drug use process causes 17 (5.20)
 Drug under administered 11 (64.70)
 Inappropriate timing of administration 3 (17.65)
 Drug not administered at all 3 (17.65)
C7: Patient-related causes 63 (19.27)
 Patient unable to understand instructions 33 (52.38)
 A patient takes less drug than prescribed 17 (26.98)
 A patient takes more drugs than prescribed 7 (11.11)
 Inappropriate timing or dosing intervals 5 (7.94)
 A patient uses unnecessary drug 1 (1.59)
C8: Other causes 30 (9.17)
 Not safe or drug-drug interaction 17 (56.67)
 No or inappropriate outcome monitoring 13 (43.33)