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Table 2 Clinical characteristics and laboratory investigation among hospitalized heart failure patients at JMC

From: Drug-related problems and its predictors among hospitalized heart failure patients at Jimma Medical Center, South West Ethiopia: prospective interventional study

Variables Frequency (%)
Patient type  
 Newly diagnosed HF patients 134 (56.5)
 Known HF patients 103 (43.5)
NYHA Class  
 II 13 (5.5)
 III 58 (24.5)
 IV 166 (70)
Etiology of heart failure  
 IHD 94 (39.7)
 CRVHD 56 (23.6)
 CMP 51 (21.5)
 HHD 23 (9.7)
 Others* 13 (5.5)
Comorbid condition 146 (61.6)
 Anemia 43 (29.5)
 Atrial fibrillation 41 (28.1)
 Hypertension 36 (24.7)
 Chronic kidney disease 25 (17.1)
 Acute kidney injury 24 (16.4)
 Diabetes mellitus 21 (14.4)
 Thrombosis 15 (10.3)
 Others** 33 (22.6)
Number of comorbidity  
 1 90 (61.6)
 ≥ 2 56 (38.4)
 Hospital stay (mean ± SD) 18.3 ± 8.8
 < 18 133 (56.1)
 ≥ 18 104 (43.9)
Serum electrolyte  
Potassium  
 < 3.5 mmol/l 25 (12.8)
 > 5.5 mmol/l 51 (26.2)
 3.5–5.5 mmol/l 119 (61)
 Sodium (< 135 mmol/l) 69 (35.4)
 135–147 mmol/l 126 (64.6)
Renal function test  
 Serum creatinine (mg/dl) (> 1.2) 69 (29.6)
 (0.34–1.2) 126 (70.4)
Vital sign  
 Systolic blood pressure (mmhg) (≥ 130) 33 (13.9)
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmhg) (≥ 80) 29 (12.2)
 Heart rate (bpm) (≥ 100) 46 (19.4)
 (60–100) 191 (80.6)
Ejection fraction (%)  
 ≤ 40 104 (54.5)
 41–49 23 (12)
 ≥ 50 64 (33.5)
Coagulation profile  
 INR (< 2) 49 (85.9)
 (2–3) 8 (14.1)
 Prothrombin time (< 25) 50 (87.7)
 (25–50) 7 (12.3)
Liver function test  
 AST (≥ 40) 54 (26.1)
 < 40 153 (73.9)
 ALT (≥ 40) 43 (20.8)
 < 40 164 (79.2)
Complete blood count  
 White blood cell (< 4.5) 37 (16)
 4.5–11 175 (75.8)
 > 11 19 (8.2)
 Hemoglobin, g/dl (≤ 8) 18 (7.8)
 > 8 213 (92.2)
 Platelet (< 150) 36 (15.6)
 150–450 195 (84.4)
  1. IHD ischemic heart disease, CRVHD chronic rheumatic valvular disease, HHD hypertensive heart disease, CMP cardiomyopathy, NYHA New York Heart Association, INR internationalized normal ratio, AST aspartate transaminase, ALT alanine transaminase
  2. *Corpulmonale (2.1%), degenerative valvular disease (2.1%), and thyrocardiac disease (1.3%)
  3. **Thyrocardiac disease (5.9%), chronic pulmonary disease (4.6%), HIV/AIDS (1.7%), tuberculosis (1.3%), and gout (0.4%)