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Table 1 Characteristics of the adults and children (n = 187)

From: Obesity, hypertension, and tobacco use associated with left ventricular remodeling and hypertrophy in South African women: Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort

  Adults (n = 123) Children (n = 64)
Age (years), minimum and maximum 41.3 (28–68) 6.9 (4–10)
Females, n (%) 123 (100) 35 (55)
Anthropometry
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 32.5 (26.6–37.7) 15.8 (14.8–17.2)
  Underweighta (BMI ≤ 18 or < -2SD in children), n (%) 1 (0.8) 8 (12.5)
  Normala (BMI: 18–25 or -2 to 1SD in children), n (%) 18 (14.6) 41 (64.1)
  Overweighta (BMI: 25–30 or 1 to 2SD in children), n (%) 31 (25.2) 11 (17.2)
  Obesea (BMI ≥ 30 or > 2SD in children), n (%) 73 (59.3) 4 (6.3)
Blood pressure
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 113 (106–125) 107 (99–113)
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 79 (73–86) 70 (64–75)
 Heart rate (bpm) 73 (66–81) 88 (79–98)
  Elevated BP*, n (%) 7 (5.7) 9 (14.1)
  Hypertension*, n (%) 44 (35.8) 29 (45.3)
   Of which, on medication 33 (75.0)
    Hydrochlorothiazide, n (%) 20 (60.6)
Medical history
 Previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus, n (%) 3 (2.4)
 Previously diagnosed high cholesterol, n (%) 15 (12.2)
 Previous heart disease, n (%) 3 (2.4)
Tobacco & alcohol use, n (%)
 Ever used tobacco (smoke and/or smokeless) 28 (22.8)
  Of which, currently smoke tobacco 9 (32.1)
  Of which, currently use smokeless tobacco 18 (64.3)
  Of which, previously smoked tobacco 1 (3.6)  
 Regular alcohol use 68 (55.3)
  Of which, have ≥ 6 drinks/day
   Never 28 (41.2)  
   Infrequently (monthly or less) 35 (51.5)
   Frequently (weekly or daily) 5 (7.4)
Physical activity
 Moderate-vigorous physical activity (min/week) 525 (160–1605)
 Sedentary behaviour (min/week) 690 (180–1140)
Left ventricular geometry
 Left ventricular mass (g) 155.9 (126.5–199.6) 51.6 (42.9–65.5)
 Left ventricular mass indexed (LVMI) to BSA (g/m2) 84.8 (71.4–102.3) 56.29 (47.6–69.2)
 Relative wall thickness 0.35 (0.31–0.42) 0.27 (0.22–0.32)
 Normal geometry 60 (48.8) 59 (92.2)
 Concentric remodelling, n (%) 19 (15.4) 1 (1.6)
 Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) – All, n (%) 44 (35.8) 4 (6.3)
  Eccentric LVH, n (%) 33 (26.8) 4 (6.3)
  Concentric LVH, n (%) 11 (8.9)
  1. Data presented as median and interquartile range, unless otherwise indicated. BMI, body mass index
  2. BP blood pressure, bpm beats per minute, LVMI left ventricular mass index, BSA body surface area, LVH left ventricular hypertrophy.
  3. *Hypertension and elevated BP categories defined according to the ISH guidelines [37] for adults and the Academy of Pediatrics Clinical Practice 2017 guidelines [42] for children.
  4. aBMI categories classifies according to the WHO guidelines [40] for adults and children respectively