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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants sorted by tertiles of TyG

From: The correlation of atherosclerosis and triglyceride glucose index: a secondary analysis of a national cross-sectional study of Japanese

  All participants Q1 (< 7.96) Q2 (7.96–8.57) Q3 (> 8.57) p value
Participants (n) 912 304 304 304  
TyG index 8.3 ± 0.7 7.6 ± 0.3 8.3 ± 0.2 9.0 ± 0.4  < 0.001***
Sex (n%)       < 0.001***
 Males 592 (64.9) 128 (42.1) 203 (66.8) 261 (85.9)  
 Females 320 (35.1) 176 (57.9) 101 (33.2) 43 (14.1)  
Age (years) 51.1 ± 9.6 50.7 ± 10.1 51.6 ± 9.4 51.1 ± 9.2 0.493
BMI (kg/m2) 23.1 ± 3.1 21.8 ± 2.5 23.1 ± 3.3 24.5 ± 3.0  < 0.001***
SBP (mmHg) 120.2 ± 15.0 114.7 ± 13.9 120.9 ± 15.4 125.1 ± 13.7  < 0.001***
DBP (mmHg) 76.1 ± 10.0 72.0 ± 9.4 76.4 ± 10.2 80.0 ± 8.7  < 0.001***
FBG (mg/dL) 98.1 ± 14.1 92.2 ± 7.6 98.0 ± 10.4 104.0 ± 18.9  < 0.001***
Uric acid (mg/dL) 5.3 ± 1.4 4.6 ± 1.3 5.2 ± 1.3 6.0 ± 1.3  < 0.001***
AST (IU/L) 19.0 (16.0, 23.0) 19.0 (16.0, 22.0) 19.0 (16.0, 23.0) 21.0 (17.0, 26.0)  < 0.001***
ALT (IU/L) 19.0 (14.0, 26.0) 16.0 (12.8, 20.0) 18.0 (14.0, 23.2) 23.0 (18.0, 34.0)  < 0.001***
γGTP (IU/L) 19.0 (14.0, 28.0) 14.0 (11.0, 19.0) 18.5 (14.0, 26.0) 25.0 (18.0, 43.0)  < 0.001***
TC (mg/dL) 209.8 ± 35.9 198.4 ± 33.9 208.0 ± 33.7 223.1 ± 35.8  < 0.001***
TG (mg/dL) 99.9 ± 74.9 44.2 ± 12.3 81.8 ± 14.8 173.6 ± 87.3  < 0.001***
HDL-C (mg/dL) 53.5 ± 14.6 62.0 ± 14.0 53.4 ± 13.1 45.2 ± 11.4  < 0.001***
LDL-C (mg/dL) 128.1 ± 31.7 116.6 ± 29.2 130.4 ± 28.7 137.1 ± 33.5  < 0.001***
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 70.4 ± 12.0 73.5 ± 13.0 70.2 ± 11.4 67.6 ± 11.0  < 0.001***
Current smoker (n%)       < 0.001***
 None or past 715 (78.4) 263 (86.5) 233 (76.6) 219 (72)  
 Current 197 (21.6) 41 (13.5) 71 (23.4) 85 (28)  
Alcohol group (n%)       < 0.001***
0–40 g/week 594 (65.1) 225 (74) 194 (63.8) 175 (57.6)  
40–140 g/week 150 (16.4) 42 (13.8) 59 (19.4) 49 (16.1)  
140–280 g/week 88 (9.6) 23 (7.6) 33 (10.9) 32 (10.5)  
 > 280 g/week 80 (8.8) 14 (4.6) 18 (5.9) 48 (15.8)  
Regular exercise (n%)      0.008**
 < 1/week 735 (80.6) 229 (75.3) 247 (81.2) 259 (85.2)  
 ≥ 1/week 177 (19.4) 75 (24.7) 57 (18.8) 45 (14.8)  
Fatty liver (n%)       < 0.001***
None 647 (70.9) 274 (90.1) 229 (75.3) 144 (47.4)  
Moderate or severe 265 (29.1) 30 (9.9) 75 (24.7) 160 (52.6)  
Menopausal state (n%)      0.071
Menopausal 138 (43.1) 86 (48.9) 36 (35.6) 16 (37.2)  
Postmenopausal 182 (56.9) 90 (51.1) 65 (64.4) 27 (62.8)  
ABI 1.2 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 0.001**
baPWV(cm/s) 1415.8 ± 246.3 1350.7 ± 226.1 1424.5 ± 234.6 1472.1 ± 262.0  < 0.001***
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or n (%). Abbreviations: TyG index, triglyceride glucose index; BMI, body mass index; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; γGTP, gamma-glutamyl transferase; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; ABI, ankle-brachial index; baPWV, brachial to ankle pulse wave velocity. (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001)