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Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: Glycemic status, non-traditional risk and left ventricular structure and function in the Jackson Heart Study

Variables No diabetes/prediabetes Prediabetes Diabetes ¥Sig n
  Frequency (%) Frequency (%) Frequency (%)   
Female      
Male 300 (31.02) 259 (36.43) 178 (32.01) 0.057 2234
Female 667 (68.98) 452 (36.57) 378 (67.99)   
Highest level of education      
Less than high school 91 (9.41) 108 (15.19) 134 (24.10) < 0.001 2234
High school/GED   148 (20.82) 117 (21.04)   
Vocational school, trade school, or college 719 (74.35) 455(63.99) 305 (54.86)   
Physical activity index      
Poor 366 (37.85) 350 (49.23) 317 (57.01)  < 0.001 2234
Intermediate 346 (37.64) 218 (30.66) 159 (28.60)   
Ideal 237 (24.51) 143 (21.11) 80 (14.39)   
Alcohol consumption      
None 490 (50.67) 411 (57.81) 384 (69.06)  < 0.001 2234
Moderate and Heavy/At risk 477 (49.33) 300 (42.19) 172 (30.94)   
βSmoking status (AHA classification)      
Current smoker 103 (10.65) 78 (10.97) 55 (9.89) 0.820 2234
Former smoker & Never smoker/Quit > 12 months 864 (89.35) 633 (89.03) 501 (90.11)   
Nutrition Status      
Poor 389 (40.23) 312 (43.88) 326 (58.63)  < 0.001 2234
Intermediate and Ideal Health 578 (59.77) 399 (56.12) 230 (41.37)   
Used crack or cocaine in any form 41 (4.24) 25 (3.52) 12 (2.16) 0.103 2234
Dyslipidemia 501 (51.81) 460 (64.70) 270 (48.56)  < 0.001 2234
αCKD      
No CKD 951 (98.35) 678 (95.36) 506 (91.01)  < 0.001 2234
CKD III & IV 16 (1.65) 33 (4.64) 50 (8.99)   
¥Hypertension 426 (44.36) 460 (64.70) 434 (78.06)  < 0.001 2234
Beta Blocker Medications 58 (6.00) 96 (13.50) 81 (14.57)  < 0.001 2234
Calcium Channel Blocker 141 (14.58) 155 (21.80)) 151 (27.16)  < 0.001 2234
ACE/ARB Medications 187 (19.34) 182 (25.60) 301 (54.14)  < 0.001 2234
Diuretics 243 (25.13) 287 (40.37) 278 (50.00)  < 0.001 2234
Age in years 50.24 (12.27) 56.41 (10.61) 58.35 (11.28)  < 0.001 2234
Heart Rate (Beats/Minute) 66.03 (10.78) 65.44 (11.23) 69.89 (12.23)  < 0.001 2234
BMI (kg/m2) 30.63 (6.87) 32.85 (7.01) 34.49 (7.22)  < 0.001 2234
BSA (m2) 1.96 (0.23) 2.03 (0.22) 2.06 (0.23) 0.748 2234
HbA1c (%) 5.22 (0.33) 5.87 (0.30) 7.52 (1.70)  < 0.001 2234
Time since diabetes diagnosed in years (DM Duration) 0 (0) 0 (0) 10.12 (9.80) N/A 2082
Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction % 61.66 (6.66) 62.44 (7.19) 62.28 (7.34) 0.057 2234
Left Ventricular Fractional Shortening % 39.28 (5.84) 39.31 (6.22) 39.98 (6.54) 0.174 1600
Left Ventricular End Diastolic Volume Index ml/m2 34.47 (11.32) 34.33 (12.77) 35.04 (15.51) 0.666 2234
Left Ventricular End Systolic Volume Index ml/m2 17.59 (5.46) 16.89 (6.03) 17.08 (7.55) 0.061 2234
Myocardial Contraction Fraction % 58.60 (17.76) 56.18 (22.13) 53.10 (12.04)  < 0.001 2234
Relative Wall Thickness (cm) 0.34 (0.06) 0.36 (0.07) 0.37 (0.07)  < 0.001 2234
Stroke Volume Index (ml/m2) 37.90 (7.42) 37.25 (7.74) 37.30 (8.14) 0.159 2234
Cardiac Index (L/min/m2) 2.41 (0.58) 2.35 (0.56) 2.58 (0.63)  < 0.001 2234
Left Ventricular Mass Index (g/m2) 68.89 (14.77) 71.74 (16.67) 75.30 (18.06)  < 0.001 2234
Beta Natriuretic Peptide (pg/mL) 12.27 (17.72) 12.93 (19.08) 15.00 (27.50) 0.029 1760
Carvedilol dose equivalent (mg) 1.42 (7.35) 3.27 (10.72) 2.11 (8.15) 0.019 2078
  1. ¥Chi square, fishers exact tests were utilized for categorial variables and one-way ANOVA when appropriate
  2. Defined according to American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 criteria for minutes/week of moderate or vigorous physical activity. Poor physical activity: 0 min/week of leisure‐time moderate or vigorous physical activity. Intermediate physical activity: > 0 and < 150 min/week of leisure‐time moderate physical activity. > 150 min per week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 min per week of vigorous aerobic activity, or a combination of both. βCurrent Smoker, former smoker (quit < 12 months) and Never smoker/Quit ≥ 12 months. ∞Nutrition Status based on AHA categorization; Components (based on 2000‐kcal diet): (a) Fruits and vegetables: ≥ 4.5 cups/day, (b) Fish: > 3.5 oz, twice per week, (c) Sodium: < 1500 mg/day, (d) Sugary beverages: < 450 kcal/wk and (e) Whole grains: ≥ 3 servings/day. Poor Health: 0–1 components, Intermediate Health: 2–3 components and Ideal Health: 4–5 components. ¥Hypertension-BP > 140/90 mmHg and taking medications for HTN. αCKD-CKD stage II–III evidence by eGFR 60 to 89 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (MDRD method) or evidence of kidney damage urine albumin/creatinine ratio > 30 mg/dl. ≠ Carvedilol dose equivalent