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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients combined with AF and hypertension according to ACEI/ARB

From: Impact of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone-system inhibitor drugs on mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation and hypertension

  Total (n = 1110) ACEI/ARB (n = 574) no-ACEI/ARB (n = 536) P value
Male (n[%]) 492 [44.3%] 263 [45.8%] 229 [42.7%] 0.300
Age (y) 74(66–80) 73(66–79) 74(67–80) 0.053
BMI (Kg/m2) 23.8(22.0–26.0) 24.0(22.1–26.7) 23.6(21.9–25.7) 0.027
SBP (mmHg) 140(124–152) 140(126–154) 140(122–155) 0.100
DBP (mmHg) 80(71–90) 80(74–90) 80(70–90) 0.109
Heart rate (beat/min) 96(80–120) 96(79–118) 98(80–122) 0.023
Type of AF (n[%])     0.019
Paroxysmal 232 [20.9%] 103 [17.9%] 129 [24.1%]  
Persistent 353 [31.8%] 180 [31.4%] 173 [32.3%]  
Permanent 525 [47.3%] 291 [50.7%] 234 [43.7%]  
Comorbidities     
Myocardial infarction (n[%]) 104 [9.4%] 70 [12.2%] 34 [6.3%] 0.001
Coronary artery disease (n[%]) 607 [54.7%] 343 [59.8%] 264 [49.3%]  < 0.001
Congenital heart disease (n[%]) 11 [1.0%] 4 [0.7%] 7 [1.3%] 0.306
Diabetes mellitus (n[%]) 243 [21.9%] 110 [19.2%] 133 [24.8%] 0.286
Heart failure (n[%]) 374 [33.7%] 234 [40.8%] 140 [26.1%]  < 0.001
Rheumatic heart disease (n[%]) 77 [6.9%] 41 [7.1%] 36 [6.7%] 0.780
Left ventricular hypertrophy (n[%]) 221 [19.9%] 129 [22.5%] 92 [17.2%] 0.027
Previous stroke or TIA (n[%]) 279 [25.1%] 136 [23.7%] 143 [26.7%] 0.252
Sleep apnea (n[%]) 46 [4.1%] 24 [4.2%] 22 [4.1%] 0.949
Smoking (n[%]) 238 [21.4%] 133 [23.2%] 105 [19.6%] 0.146
LVEF < 40% (n[%]) 207 [18.6%] 129 [22.5%] 78 [14.6%] 0.001
Dementia (n[%]) 31 [2.8%] 10 [1.7%] 21 [3.9%] 0.028
COPD (n[%]) 137 [12.3%] 71 [12.4%] 66 [12.3%] 0.977
Hyperthyroidism (n[%]) 27 [2.4%] 19 [3.3%] 8 [1.5%] 0.050
Valvular heart disease (n[%]) 90 [8.1%] 53 [9.2%] 37 [6.9%] 0.155
Prior major bleeding (n[%]) 25 [2.3%] 11 [1.9%] 14 [2.6%] 0.435
CHADS2 score ≥ 2 (n[%]) 846 [76.2%] 454 [79.1%] 392 [73.1%] 0.020
Medication status
Diuretic (n[%]) 422 [38.0%] 282 [49.1%] 140 [26.1%]  < 0.001
β blocker (n[%]) 567 [51.1%] 311 [54.2%] 256 [47.8%] 0.033
Calcium channel blocker (n[%]) 412 [37.1%] 202 [35.2%] 210 [39.2%] 0.169
Digoxin (n[%]) 278 [25.0%] 190 [33.1%] 88 [16.4%]  < 0.001
Aspirin (n[%]) 680 [61.3%] 405 [70.6%] 275 [51.3%]  < 0.001
Clopidogrel (n[%]) 98 [8.8%] 55 [9.6%] 43 [8.0%] 0.360
Statin (n[%]) 363 [32.7%] 253 [44.1%] 110 [20.5%]  < 0.001
Oral anticoagulants (n[%]) 147 [13.2%] 79 [13.8%] 68 [12.7%] 0.597
Amiodarone (n[%]) 121 [10.9%] 74 [12.9%] 47 [8.8%] 0.028
Propafenone (n[%]) 37 [3.3%] 18 [3.1%] 1 [3.5%] 0.705
  1. ACEI: angiotensin-conver ting enzyme inhibitor; AF: atrial fibrillation; ARB: angiotensin II receptor blocker; BMI: Body mass index values; CCB: calcium channel blocker; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; TIA: transient ischemic attack; SBP systolic blood pressure