Skip to main content

Table 2 Clinical outcomes according to VHD status

From: Prognostic implications of valvular heart disease in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation

Study Outcomes Significant VHD
(n = 575)
No/mild VHD
(n = 408)
Unadjusted Adjustedc
n Incidence rate1 (per 100 pt-yrs) n Incidence ratea
(per 100 pt-yrs)
HR (95% CI)b p valued HR (95% CI)b p valued
All-cause death 277 21.6 79 6.5 3.24 (2.52–4.16)  < 0.001 1.55 (1.17–2.06) 0.02
Cardiovascular death 208 16.0 49 4.0 3.87 (2.83–5.29)  < 0.001 1.70 (1.09–2.66) 0.02
Stroke/systemic embolic event 25 2.1 14 1.2 1.77 (0.92–3.43) 0.089 1.80 (0.83–3.91) 0.136
Major bleeding 22 1.9 22 2.0 0.88 (0.49–1.59) 0.669 0.60 (0.29–1.24) 0.167
HF hospitalization 58 5.8 17 1.8 4.08 (2.37–7.04)  < 0.001 2.53 (1.35–4.73) 0.004
Any hospitalization 202 20.3 155 16.9 1.48 (1.20–1.84)  < 0.001 1.18 (0.92–1.52) 0.202
Net clinical outcomes
Cardiovascular death or stroke/SEE or major bleeding 239 22.9 81 8.8 2.72 (2.11–3.51)  < 0.001 1.30 (0.97–1.74) 0.079
Cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization 249 24.5 62 6.7 3.67 (2.78–4.85)  < 0.001 1.74 (1.19–2.55) 0.005
Cardiovascular death or Any hospitalization 369 36.6 192 20.9 1.76 (1.48–2.09)  < 0.001 1.20 (0.98–1.47) 0.077
All-cause death or HF hospitalization 316 31.3 92 9.9 3.17 (2.51–4.01)  < 0.001 1.61 (1.24–2.08)  < 0.001
  1. aIncidence rates are expressed per 100 patient-years. bHazard ratios and 95% CI are presented using a Cox proportional hazards regression. cAdjusted hazard ratio indicates adjustment for variables that were individually associated with each outcome, including age, gender, body mass index, AF pattern, duration of AF, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, prior myocardial infarction, prior stroke, prior major bleeding, estimated glomerular filtration rate, LVEF, LAVi, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, high-sensitive cardiac troponin T, type of oral anticoagulation and rate or rhythm control strategy. dValues in bold indicate statistical significance (p < 0.05)
  2. VHD valvular heart disease, SEE systemic embolic event, HF heart failure, CI confidence interval