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Table 2 Means and standard errors (S.E.) of each physiological measure before and after the capnometric training intervention (n = 16) and in the control group (n = 16), the significance of the differences in the post-intervention changes in each measure, and the significance of the differences between capnometric training and control groups

From: Capnometric feedback training decreases 24-h blood pressure in hypertensive postmenopausal women

Group Baseline mean ± S.E After mean ± S.E ∆ (Mean ± S.E p Between group
X2 p
Capnometric Group       
End tidal CO2 37.0 ± 0.9 32.6 ± 1.4 − 4.3 ± 0.4 p < .01 11.22 p < .01
Breathing rate 14.8 ± 0.6 14.3 ± 0.7 − 0.5 ± 0.2 p < .01 0.13 p = .72
Systolic BP 144.2 ± 0.9 136.6 ± 1.1 − 7.6 ± 2.0 p < .01 6.78 p < .01
Diastolic BP 78.4 ± 1.9 76.8 ± 1.7 − 1.6 ± 1.3 p = .42 0.58 p = .44
Heart rate 67.0 ± 1.7 67.9 ± 0.1 + 3.7 ± 1.8 p = .62 0.14 p = .71
Control group       
End tidal CO2 37.0 ± 0.6 36.7 ± 0.6 − 0.3 ± 0.1 p = .43   
Breathing rate 14.4 ± .08 15.4 ± 0.8 + 1.0 ± 0.9 p = .14   
Systolic BP 138.3 ± 0.4 137.0 ± 1.3 − 1.3 ± 1.3 p = .65   
Diastolic BP 78.2 ± 1.4 78.2 ± 1.3 0.0 ± 1.2 p = .65   
Heart rate 70.6 ± 1.9 71.5 ± 2.0 + 0.9 ± 1.1 p = .52   
  1. End tidal CO2 = mmHg, Breathing rate = breaths/minute, Systolic and Diastolic BP = mmHg, Heart rate = bpm, ∆ = difference score, X2 = Chi square