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Table 2 Clinical outcomes in high-intensity or low-moderate-intensity statin users at 2 years

From: Comparative effect of statin intensity between prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus after implanting newer-generation drug-eluting stents in Korean acute myocardial infarction patients: a retrospective observational study

  Group A1
Normoglycemia
Group A2
Prediabetes
Log-Rank Unadjusted Adjusteda
HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
High-intensity statin
MACE 23 (3.4) 61 (7.3) 0.001 2.262 (1.400–3.655) 0.001 2.187 (1.341–3.569) 0.002
All-cause death 8 (1.2) 21 (2.5) 0.049 2.218 (0.983–5.009) 0.055 2.155 (0.935–4.967) 0.071
Cardiac death 5 (0.6) 15 (1.7) 0.058 2.570 (0.934–7.072) 0.068 2.687 (0.929–7.768) 0.067
Re-MI 9 (1.4) 16 (1.9) 0.325 1.503 (0.664–3.402) 0.328 1.390 (0.606–3.189) 0.438
Any repeat revascularization 8 (1.1) 28 (3.5) 0.005 2.958 (1.348–6.490) 0.007 3.009 (1.342–6.745) 0.006
  Group A1
Normoglycemia
Group A3
T2DM
Log-Rank Unadjusted Adjusteda
HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
High-intensity statin
MACE 23 (3.4) 96 (9.0) < 0.001 2.651 (1.682–4.179) < 0.001 2.368 (1.480–3.788) 0.001
All-cause death 8 (1.2) 41 (3.8) < 0.001 3.215 (1.507–6.859) 0.003 2.244 (1.035–4.866) 0.051
Cardiac death 5 (0.6) 28 (2.6) 0.005 3.540 (1.367–9.169) 0.009 2.474 (0.932–6.566) 0.069
Re-MI 9 (1.4) 29 (3.0) 0.063 2.004 (0.948–4.233) 0.069 2.051 (0.943–4.460) 0.070
Any repeat revascularization 8 (1.1) 42 (4.0) 0.001 3.330 (1.563–7.093) 0.002 3.619 (1.659–7.898) 0.001
  Group A2
Prediabetes
Group A3
T2DM
Log-Rank Unadjusted Adjusteda
HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
High-intensity statin
MACE 61 (7.3) 96 (9.0) 0.316 1.178 (0.855–1.624) 0.316 1.059 (0.760–1.474) 0.737
All-cause death 21 (2.5) 41 (3.8) 0.151 1.467 (0.867–2.482) 0.153 1.181 (0.686–2.033) 0.547
Cardiac death 15 (1.7) 28 (2.6) 0.291 1.399 (0.747–2.620) 0.294 1.063 (0.554–2.039) 0.854
Re-MI 16 (1.9) 29 (3.0) 0.307 1.373 (0.746–2.527) 0.309 1.384 (0.719–2.529) 0.352
Any repeat revascularization 28 (3.5) 42 (4.0) 0.628 1.125 (0.698–1.815) 0.628 1.042 (0.637–1.706) 0.869
  Group B1
Normoglycemia
Group B2
Prediabetes
Log-rank Unadjusted Adjustedb
HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
Low-moderate-intensity statin
MACE 104 (6.4) 139 (6.9) 0.509 1.089 (0.845–1.405) 0.509 1.076 (0.831–1.393) 0.579
All-cause death 28 (1.7) 48 (2.4) 0.150 1.406 (0.882–2.240) 0.152 1.289 (0.803–2.071) 0.293
Cardiac death 20 (1.1) 34 (1.7) 0.227 1.403 (0.807–2.437) 0.230 1.205 (0.687–2.114) 0.516
Re-MI 27 (1.7) 35 (1.7) 0.819 1.060 (0.642–1.752) 0.819 1.414 (0.684–1.902) 0.613
Any repeat revascularization 60 (3.9) 60 (3.1) 0.229 1.245 (0.870–1.781) 0.230 1.219 (0.846–1.755) 0.288
  Group B1
Normoglycemia
Group B3
T2DM
Log-rank Unadjusted Adjustedb
HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
Low-moderate-intensity statin
MACE 104 (6.4) 254 (9.2) 0.001 1.463 (1.164–1.837) 0.001 1.285 (1.014–1.629) 0.038
All-cause death 28 (1.7) 99 (3.6) < 0.001 2.124 (1.396–3.231) < 0.001 1.784 (1.156–2.751) 0.009
Cardiac death 20 (1.1) 63 (2.2) 0.011 1.899 (1.148–3.141) 0.012 1.527 (0.906–2.572) 0.112
Re-MI 27 (1.7) 69 (2.6) 0.065 1.517 (0.972–2.367) 0.067 1.422 (0.894–2.260) 0.137
Any repeat revascularization 60 (3.9) 102 (3.8) 0.938 1.013 (0.736–1.393) 0.938 1.085 (0.778–1.515) 0.630
  Group B2
Prediabetes
Group B3
T2DM
Log-rank Unadjusted Adjustedb
HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
Low-moderate-intensity statin
MACE 139 (6.9) 254 (9.2) 0.005 1.347 (1.096–1.657) 0.005 1.241 (1.004–1.534) 0.062
All-cause death 48 (2.4) 99 (3.6) 0.018 1.512 (1.071–2.135) 0.019 1.383 (0.970–1.970) 0.083
Cardiac death 34 (1.7) 63 (2.2) 0.151 1.355 (0.893–2.056) 0.153 1.203 (0.784–1.848) 0.397
Re-MI 35 (1.7) 69 (2.6) 0.072 1.449 (0.965–2.176) 0.074 1.331 (0.878–2.019) 0.178
Any repeat revascularization 60 (3.1) 102 (3.8) 0.157 1.258 (0.915–1.731) 0.158 1.165 (0.841–1.615) 0.358
  1. HR: Hazard ratio; CI: confidence interval; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus; MACE: major adverse cardiac events; Re-MI: recurrent myocardial infarction; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; STEMI: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; CVA: cerebrovascular accidents; NT-ProBNP: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; ACC/AHA: American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association; ACEI: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB: angiotensin receptor blockers
  2. aAdjusted by age, male, LVEF, cardiogenic shock, STEMI, hypertension, previous MI, previous CVA, current smoker, NT-ProBNP, serum creatinine, eGFR, atorvastatin, ACC/AHA type B2 lesion, ≥ Three-vessel disease, and number of stent
  3. bAdjusted by age, male, LVEF, cardiogenic shock, STEMI, hypertension, previous MI, previous CVA, current smoker, NT-ProBNP, serum creatinine, eGFR, total cholesterol, beta-blocker, ACEI, ARB, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, intravascular ultrasound, single-vessel disease, ≥ three-vessel disease, and number of stent