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Table 1 Baseline clinical, laboratory, angiographic, and procedural characteristics

From: Comparative effect of statin intensity between prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus after implanting newer-generation drug-eluting stents in Korean acute myocardial infarction patients: a retrospective observational study

  High-intensity statin (Group A, n = 2984) Low-moderate-intensity statin (Group B, n = 6909)
NormoglycemiaGroup A1
(n = 806)
Prediabetes
Group A2
(n = 935)
T2DM
Group A3
(n = 1243)
p value NormoglycemiaGroup B1
(n = 1815)
Prediabetes
Group B2
(n = 2145)
T2DM
Group B3
(n = 2949)
p value
Age (years) 59.4 ± 12.6 62.0 ± 12.6 62.8 ± 11.4 < 0.001 61.6 ± 12.9 63.6 ± 12.4 64.4 ± 11.7 < 0.001
Male, n (%) 686 (85.1) 736 (78.7) 928 (74.7) < 0.001 1436 (79.1) 1604 (74.8) 2058 (69.8) < 0.001
LVEF (%) 54.4 ± 10.3 53.8 ± 10.7 52.1 ± 11.2 < 0.001 52.7 ± 10.2 52.8 ± 10.5 51.3 ± 11.4 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.3 ± 3.0 24.5 ± 3.2 24.7 ± 3.1 0.042 23.7 ± 2.9 24.1 ± 3.1 24.3 ± 3.1 < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 134.4 ± 27.1 132.0 ± 28.0 133.0 ± 28.0 0.196 130.8 ± 27.7 129.2 ± 26.4 130.8 ± 27.3 0.070
DBP (mmHg) 83.0 ± 17.0 80.1 ± 16.9 79.8 ± 16.7 < 0.001 80.1 ± 16.2 78.8 ± 15.9 78.9 ± 15.7 0.017
STEMI, n (%) 462 (57.3) 556 (59.5) 681 (54.8) 0.089 1081 (59.6) 1270 (59.2) 1520 (51.5) < 0.001
 Primary PCI, n (%) 451 (97.6) 538 (96.8) 663 (97.4) 0.687 1038 (96.0) 1222 (96.2) 1446 (95.1) 0.315
NSTEMI, n (%) 344 (42.7) 379 (40.5) 562 (45.2) 0.089 734 (40.4) 875 (40.8) 1429 (48.5) < 0.001
 PCI within 24 h 303 (88.1) 337 (88.9) 495 (88.1) 0.913 652 (88.8) 750 (85.7) 1207 (84.5) 0.022
Cardiogenic shock, n (%) 18 (2.2) 33 (3.5) 48 (3.9) 0.120 78 (4.3) 93 (4.3) 126 (4.3) 0.994
Hypertension, n (%) 293 (36.4) 403 (43.1) 705 (56.7) < 0.001 740 (40.8) 944 (44.0) 1821 (61.7) < 0.001
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 71 (8.8) 114 (12.2) 161 (13.0) 0.013 163 (9.0) 259 (12.1) 461 (15.6) < 0.001
Previous MI, n (%) 20 (2.5) 31 (3.3) 50 (4.0) 0.168 59 (3.3) 54 (2.5) 154 (5.2) < 0.001
Previous PCI, n (%) 30 (3.7) 47 (5.0) 83 (6.7) 0.013 74 (4.1) 105 (4.9) 243 (8.2) < 0.001
Previous CABG, n (%) 3 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 8 (0.6) 0.145 4 (0.2) 4 (0.2) 25 (0.8) 0.001
Previous HF, n (%) 2 (0.2) 4 (0.4) 13 (1.0) 0.053 10 (0.6) 22 (1.0) 42 (1.4) 0.017
Previous CVA, n (%) 38 (4.7) 42 (4.5) 89 (7.2) 0.011 75 (4.1) 115 (5.4) 241 (8.2) < 0.001
Current smokers, n (%) 393 (48.8) 473 (50.6) 531 (42.7) 0.001 804 (44.3) 991 (46.2) 1123 (38.1) < 0.001
Peak CK-MB (mg/dL) 130.9 ± 151.6 142.1 ± 172.4 108.7 ± 151.3 < 0.001 137.6 ± 184.5 145.5 ± 197.4 101.6 ± 135.7 < 0.001
Peak troponin-I (ng/mL) 48.2 ± 75.3 55.0 ± 89.0 47.3 ± 91.7 0.287 48.7 ± 74.7 45.4 ± 83.2 47.6 ± 154.5 0.670
NT-ProBNP (pg/mL) 1466.6 ± 2739.2 1474.5 ± 2226.2 1997.4 ± 4332.4 < 0.001 1570.2 ± 3125.3 1456.4 ± 2160.4 2475.3 ± 6131.6 < 0.001
hs-CRP (mg/dL) 5.39 ± 10.7 5.84 ± 13.3 6.18 ± 18.8 0.522 7.32 ± 28.7 10.2 ± 58.6 10.9 ± 45.2 0.033
Serum creatinine (mg/L) 1.02 ± 1.23 0.98 ± 0.69 1.11 ± 1.02 0.009 0.99 ± 0.82 1.00 ± 0.85 1.21 ± 1.90 < 0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 93.6 ± 46.9 88.6 ± 28.1 88.2 ± 49.0 0.014 92.1 ± 34.2 91.8 ± 44.4 84.0 ± 37.8 < 0.001
Blood glucose (mg/dL) 135.1 ± 39.5 145.9 ± 45.0 227.5 ± 103.4 < 0.001 135.6 ± 48.0 146.7 ± 49.0 223.3 ± 97.8 < 0.001
Hemoglobin A1C (%) 5.4 ± 0.4 6.0 ± 0.2 7.8 ± 1.7 < 0.001 5.3 ± 0.4 6.0 ± 0.2 7.8 ± 3.0 < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 189.9 ± 40.2 199.9 ± 44.3 189.2 ± 53.9 < 0.001 179.2 ± 39.5 186.2 ± 40.9 176.7 ± 45.0 < 0.001
Triglyceride (mg/L) 126.6 ± 84.9 151.2 ± 136.2 157.4 ± 132.6 < 0.001 115.9 ± 89.2 127.1 ± 90.0 147.6 ± 123.1 < 0.001
HDL-cholesterol (mg/L) 44.7 ± 12.1 44.2 ± 18.6 42.1 ± 11.7 < 0.001 44.4 ± 15.5 43.5 ± 13.2 41.8 ± 13.5 < 0.001
LDL-cholesterol (mg/L) 123.3 ± 36.8 130.6 ± 38.9 119.2 ± 40.6 < 0.001 112.9 ± 34.5 119.4 ± 50.7 108.2 ± 35.9 < 0.001
Discharge medications
Aspirin, n (%) 802 (99.6) 931 (99.6) 1241 (99.8) 0.686 1806 (99.5) 2136 (99.6) 2927 (99.3) 0.273
Clopidogrel, n (%) 607 (75.3) 764 (81.7) 1000 (80.5) 0.002 1465 (80.7) 1832 (85.4) 2548 (86.4) < 0.001
Ticagrelor, n (%) 144 (17.9) 118 (12.6) 159 (12.8) < 0.001 214 (11.8) 188 (8.8) 234 (7.9) < 0.001
Prasugrel, n (%) 51 (6.3) 49 (5.2) 82 (6.6) 0.404 127 (7.0) 116 (5.4) 145 (4.9) 0.009
Cilostazole, n (%) 113 (14.0) 168 (18.0) 225 (18.1) 0.034 248 (13.7) 420 (19.6) 611 (20.7) < 0.001
BBs, n (%) 682 (84.6) 811 (86.7) 1085 (87.3) 0.211 1570 (86.5) 1845 (86.0) 2572 (87.2) 0.449
ACEIs, n (%) 419 (52.0) 470 (50.3) 579 (46.6) 0.042 1161 (64.0) 1344 (62.7) 1669 (56.6) < 0.001
ARBs, n (%) 239 (29.7) 305 (32.6) 433 (34.8) 0.050 397 (21.9) 463 (21.6) 856 (29.0) < 0.001
CCBs, n (%) 45 (5.6) 32 (3.4) 78 (6.3) 0.010 93 (5.1) 135 (6.3) 235 (8.0) < 0.001
Statin, n (%)
Atorvastatin, n (%) 440 (54.6) 418 (44.7) 626 (50.4) < 0.001 835 (46.0) 987 (46.0) 1475 (50.0) 0.004
Rosuvastatin, n (%) 312 (38.7) 440 (47.1) 501 (40.3) < 0.001 704 (38.8) 825 (38.5) 967 (32.8) < 0.001
Simvastatin, n (%) 6 (0.7) 7 (0.7) 8 (0.6) 0.946 152 (8.4) 162 (7.6) 230 (7.8) 0.620
Pitavastatin, n (%) 30 (3.7) 56 (6.0) 75 (6.0) 0.048 98 (5.4) 147 (6.9) 237 (8.0) 0.002
Pravastatin, n (%) 9 (1.1) 8 (0.9) 19 (1.5) 0.350 25 (1.4) 24 (1.1) 39 (1.3) 0.733
Fluvastatin, n (%) 9 (1.1) 6 (0.6) 14 (1.1) 0.462 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 0.584
Diabetes management
Diet, n (%)    120 (9.7)     221 (7.5)  
Oral agent, n (%)    729 (58.6)     1873 (63.5)  
Insulin, n (%)    64 (5.1)     167 (5.7)  
Untreated, n (%) -   330 (26.5)     688 (23.3)  
IRA
Left main, n (%) 22 (2.7) 15 (1.6) 31 (2.5) 0.234 25 (1.4) 30 (1.4) 50 (1.7) 0.587
LAD, n (%) 392 (48.6) 453 (48.4) 588 (47.3) 0.777 938 (51.7) 1072 (50.0) 1338 (45.4) < 0.001
LCx, n (%) 146 (18.1) 156 (16.7) 191 (15.4) 0.259 290 (16.0) 360 (16.8) 504 (17.1) 0.602
RCA, n (%) 246 (30.5) 311 (33.3) 433 (34.8) 0.128 562 (31.0) 683 (31.8) 1057 (35.8) 0.001
Treated vessel
Left main, n (%) 28 (3.5) 27 (2.9) 45 (3.6) 0.626 43 (2.4) 55 (2.6) 84 (2.8) 0.587
LAD, n (%) 471 (58.4) 545 (58.3) 744 (59.9) 0.713 1092 (60.2) 1275 (59.4) 1716 (58.2) 0.374
LCx, n (%) 216 (26.8) 256 (27.4) 365 (29.4) 0.387 443 (26.4) 552 (25.7) 805 (27.3) 0.081
RCA, n (%) 296 (36.7) 373 (39.9) 539 (43.4) 0.010 659 (36.3) 827 (38.6) 1278 (43.3) < 0.001
ACC/AHA lesion type
Type B1, n (%) 98 (12.2) 115 (12.3) 140 (11.3) 0.717 231 (12.7) 282 (13.1) 363 (12.3) 0.673
Type B2, n (%) 272 (33.7) 292 (31.2) 415 (33.4) 0.457 640 (35.3) 699 (32.6) 987 (33.5) 0.198
Type C, n (%) 365 (45.3) 431 (46.1) 587 (47.2) 0.679 837 (46.1) 974 (45.4) 1373 (46.6) 0.718
Extent of CAD
Single-vessel, n (%) 449 (55.7) 524 (56.0) 569 (45.8) < 0.001 1003 (55.3) 1106 (51.6) 1244 (42.2) < 0.001
Two-vessel, n (%) 231 (28.7) 258 (27.6) 428 (34.4) 0.001 546 (30.1) 679 (31.7) 975 (33.1) 0.098
≥ Three-vessel, n (%) 121 (15.0) 150 (16.0) 242 (19.5) 0.018 266 (14.7) 360 (16.8) 730 (24.8) < 0.001
IVUS, n (%) 209 (25.9) 265 (28.3) 328 (26.4) 0.463 348 (19.2) 496 (23.1) 584 (19.8) 0.003
OCT, n (%) 10 (1.2) 6 (0.6) 9 (0.7) 0.333 11 (0.6) 22 (1.0) 22 (0.7) 0.308
FFR, n (%) 8 (1.0) 15 (1.6) 17 (1.4) 0.539 20 (1.1) 30 (1.4) 43 (1.5) 0.566
Drug-eluting stentsa
ZES, n (%) 261 (32.4) 321 (34.3) 433 (34.8) 0.504 541 (29.8) 739 (34.5) 993 (33.7) 0.004
EES, n (%) 426 (52.9) 498 (53.3) 649 (52.2) 0.885 944 (52.0) 1091 (50.9) 1539 (52.2) 0.622
BES, n (%) 135 (16.7) 128 (13.7) 175 (14.1) 0.146 322 (17.7) 307 (14.3) 384 (13.0) < 0.001
Others, n (%) 5 (0.6) 10 (1.1) 18 (1.4) 0.214 46 (2.5) 55 (2.6) 89 (3.0) 0.500
Stent diameter (mm) 3.17 ± 0.42 3.16 ± 0.42 3.14 ± 0.43 0.235 3.15 ± 0.42 3.13 ± 0.41 3.09 ± 0.41 < 0.001
Stent length (mm) 27.7 ± 11.2 27.6 ± 12.7 28.0 ± 12.5 0.681 27.4 ± 11.8 27.0 ± 11.1 27.8 ± 11.9 0.051
Number of stent 1.48 ± 0.80 1.51 ± 0.84 1.59 ± 0.87 0.007 1.40 ± 0.72 1.47 ± 0.78 1.54 ± 0.82 < 0.001
  1. Values are means ± SD or numbers and percentages. The p values for continuous data obtained from the analysis of variance. The p values for categorical data from chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; STEMI: ST-elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI: non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction; PCI: percutaneous coronary intervention; CABG: coronary artery bypass graft; HF: heart failure; CVA: cerebrovascular accident; CK-MB: creatine kinase myocardial band; NT-ProBNP: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; hs-CRP: high sensitivity C-reactive protein; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; BBs: beta-blockers; ACEs: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; ARBs: angiotensin receptor blockers; CCBs: calcium channel blockers; IRA: infarct-related artery; LAD: left anterior descending coronary artery; LCx: left circumflex coronary artery; RCA: right coronary artery; ACC/AHA: American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association; CAD: coronary artery disease; IVUS: intravascular ultrasound; OCT: optical coherence tomography; FFR: fractional flow reserve; ZES: zotarolimus-eluting stent; EES: everolimus-eluting stent; BES: biolimus-eluting stents
  2. aDrug-eluting stents were composed of ZES (Resolute Integrity stent; Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN), EES (Xience Prime stent, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA; or Promus Element stent, Boston Scientific, Natick, MA), BES (BioMatrix Flex stent, Biosensors International, Morges, Switzerland; or Nobori stent, Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), and others include any other newer-generation drug-eluting stents except for ZES, EES, and BES