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Table 1 Patient characteristics at baseline, by pain self-reported one month after discharge: TRACE-CORE, 2011–2013

From: Non-specific pain and 30-day readmission in acute coronary syndromes: findings from the TRACE-CORE prospective cohort

Variable All Patients Categories of self-reported pain after discharge  
No pain Mild-moderate pain, documented in EHR Mild-moderate pain, NOT documented in EHR Severe pain P value
  N = 787 N = 285 N = 101 N = 347 N = 54  
  N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)  
Age       0.01*
 < 50 116 (14.7) 30 (10.5) 14 (13.9) 64 (18.4) 8 (14.8)  
50–64 336 (42.7) 120 (42.1) 47 (46.5) 141 (40.6) 28 (51.9)  
 ≥ 65 335 (42.6) 135 (47.4) 40 (39.6) 142 (40.9) 18 (33.3)  
Gender       0.01*
Female 235 (29.9) 68 (23.9) 26 (25.7) 121 (34.9) 30 (37.0)  
Race       0.42
White 741 (94.9) 269 (95.1) 97 (97.0) 326 (94.8) 49 (90.7)  
Black 8 (1.0) 4 (1.4) 1 (1.0) 3 (0.9) 0 (0.0)  
Hispanic 32 (4.1) 10 (3.5) 2 (2.0) 15 (4.4) 5 (9.3)  
Education       0.31
 ≤ High school 286 (36.3) 115 (40.4) 32 (31.7) 116 (33.4) 23 (42.6)  
Some college 241 (30.6) 75 (26.3) 33 (32.7) 116 (33.4) 17 (31.5)  
 ≥ College graduate 260 (33.0) 95 (33.3) 36 (35.6) 115 (33.1) 14 (25.9)  
Low social support       0.38
Yes 41 (5.2) 17 (6.0) 5 (5.0) 14 (4.0) 5 (9.3)  
Live alone       0.63
Yes 158 (20.1) 54 (18.9) 24 (23.8) 67 (19.3) 13 (24.1)  
Low health literacy       0.69
Yes 227 (29.0) 80 (28.2) 34 (34.0) 97 (28.0) 16 (29.6)  
Heavy drinker       0.30
Yes 74 (9.4) 25 (8.8) 13 (12.9) 34 (9.8) 2 (3.7)  
Current smoker       0.04*
Yes 161 (20.6) 52 (18.2) 23 (22.8) 68 (19.6) 19 (35.2)  
Where to seek health care       0.44
No places 87 (11.1) 28 (10.0) 11 (10.9) 42 (12.1) 6 (11.1)  
Clinic or doctor office 619 (79.2) 233 (82.9) 78 (77.2) 267 (77.2) 41 (75.9)  
Other places 35 (4.5) 8 (2.8) 4 (4.0) 21 (6.1) 2 (3.7)  
Emergency department 41 (5.2) 12 (4.3) 8 (7.9) 16 (4.6) 5 (9.3)  
Acute coronary syndrome type       0.01*
STEMI 171 (21.7) 72 (25.3) 10 (9.9) 79 (22.8) 10 (18.5)  
NSTEMI 470 (59.7) 174 (61.1) 65 (64.4) 200 (57.6) 31 (57.4)  
Unstable angina 146 (18.6) 39 (13.7) 26 (25.7) 68 (19.6) 13 (24.1)  
History of PCI       0.12
Yes 174 (22.1) 54 (18.9) 22 (21.8) 80 (23.1) 18 (33.3)  
History of CABG       0.33
Yes 87 (11.1) 26 (9.1) 16 (15.8) 39 (11.2) 6 (11.1)  
Comorbiditya (mean [SD]) 2.0 [1.7] 1.8 [1.6] 2.3 [1.8] 2.0 [1.7] 2.8 [2.0]  < 0.001*
Reporting generic pain        < 0.001*
No 181 (23.1) 107 (37.8) 11 (10.9) 58 (16.8) 5 (9.3)  
Mild to moderate 447 (57.1) 141 (49.8) 65 (64.4) 220 (63.8) 21 (38.9)  
Severe 155 (19.8) 35 (12.4) 25 (24.8) 67 (19.4) 28 (51.9)  
  1. Pain category was defined using pain self-reported for the first month after discharge from index hospitalization (using SF-36 survey distributed at one month post-discharge) and electronic health record (EHR) documentation of pain extracted by natural language processing from patient’s clinical notes created within 30 days post discharge and before readmission to the hospital (if any). TRACE-CORE Transitions, Risks, and Actions in Coronary Events Center for Outcomes Research and Education, STEMI ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, NSTEMI non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, SD, standard deviation
  2. aThe number of diseases from the following 14 conditions in patient’s medical history: atrial fibrillation, Alzheimer or dementia, anemia, cancer, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, chronic lung disease, Type 2 diabetes, dialysis, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, valvular heart disease, coronary heart disease or myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack or stroke
  3. *Indicates statistically significant (P < 0.05). p-values were calculated by chi-square test (for non-age categorical variables that have no cell size smaller than 5), Fisher’s exact test (for non-age categorical variables that have cell size smaller than 5), analysis of variance (for comorbidity). We used Cuzick's Test for Trend to assess the trend of age across the 4 pain categories