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Table 1 Review of case report on cardio-biliary reflex presented with bradycardia (not include arrhythmias during cholecystectomy)

From: Delayed reversibility of complete atrioventricular block: cardio-biliary reflex after alcohol septal ablation in a patient with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

Year Age Sex Diagnosis Comorbidity Electrocardiogram Inflammatory marks Treatment Recover time to normal rhythm Flow up References
1967 56 M Calculous cholecystitis Healthy Sinus bradycardia with PVC, inverted T waves in V3 to V6 NA Atropine, cholecystectomy After injection of atropine NA [2]
1969 81 M Cholecystitis and cholelithiasis NA Sinus bradycardia Slightly raised WBC Cholecystectomy After cholecystectomy NA [3]
1970 56 M Acute calculous cholecystitis NA Sinus bradycardia WBC 11 × 109 /L Atropine, antibiotics 36–48 h with abdominal pain disappeared NA [3]
1999 67 F Severe chronic cholecystitis with perforation Thoracic aortic aneurysm,
aortoesophageal fistula
High-grade AVB and asystole NA Percutaneous drainage, cholecystectomy After percutaneous drainage Died from UGTB 1 day after operation [17]
2009 48 M Acute cholecystitis Healthy Complete AVB and second-degree heart block NA Cholecystectomy 9 s 1 year [16]
2011 35 M Acute calculous cholecystitis Healthy Sinus bradycardia and ventricular rhythm NA NA 20 min NA [14]
2015 70 M Acalculous cholecystitis Healthy Sinus bradycardia with 4.44 s pause WBC 12 × 109 /L
(4–11 × 109 /L)
Cholecystectomy NA NA [12]
2018 78 M Cholelithias Hypertension, dyslipidemia, CAD AVB CRP 2,71 mg/dL
Antibiotic, analgesics 1 h Planned cholecystectomy [15]
2020 28 M Acute calculous cholecystitis NA Complete AVB Mildly elevated Cholecystectomy, TPM implantation At least 10 h NA [18]
- 31 M Acute cholecystitis and cholangitis without stones HOCM Complete AVB WBC 10.01 × 109 /L
CRP 19.0 mg/L,
PCT 0.18 ng/mL
Antibiotic, PM implantation At least 9 days 18 months This case
  1. M male, F female, NA not available, HOCM hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, CAD coronary artery disease, AVB atrioventricular block, PVC premature ventricular contractions, WBC white blood cell, CRP C-reactive protein, PCT procalcitonin, UGTB upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding, TPM temporary pacemaker, PM pacemaker