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Table 2 Prevalence of valvular heart diseases (VHD) in the left heart according to characteristics

From: Current status and etiology of valvular heart disease in China: a population-based survey

Characters Number VHD MS MR AS AR
Total 31,499 3.8 (2.6–5.6) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 1.2 (0.7–2.1)
Gender
 Male 14,470 3.6 (2.5–5.2) 0.8 (0.4–1.6) 1.0 (0.7–1.4) 0.8 (0.4–1.4) 1.3 (0.8–2.2)
 Female 17,029 4.0 (2.6–6.1) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 0.6 (0.3–1.0) 1.2 (0.7–2.0)
P   0.308 0.967 0.096 0.194 0.459
Age (years)
 35–44 6849 1.9 (1.1–3.2) 0.7 (0.3–1.5) 0.4 (0.2–0.7) 0.4 (0.2–0.7) 0.3 (0.1–0.8)
 45–54 7406 2.1 (1.4–3.0) 0.5 (0.3–1.0) 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 0.3 (0.1–0.8) 0.4 (0.3–0.8)
 55–64 6765 4.5 (3.0–6.8) 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 1.5 (0.9–2.4) 0.5 (0.3–1.0) 1.4 (0.8–2.6)
 65–74 6406 7.6 (5.1–11.2) 1.4 (0.7–2.5) 2.1 (1.3–3.3) 1.5 (0.8–2.8) 3.1 (1.7–5.7)
 75- 4073 15.9 (10.3–23.7) 2.1 (1.1–3.8) 5.2 (3.2–8.3) 3.4 (1.7–6.7) 7.1 (4.0–12.3)
P   < 0.001 0.002 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
BMI (Kg/m2)
 < 18.5 1319 6.2 (3.7–10.4) 1.6 (0.6–4.7) 1.7 (0.6–4.4) 0.7 (0.2–1.8) 3.1 (1.6–6.1)
 18.5–23.9 13,036 4.0 (2.6–6.0) 0.7 (0.4–1.4) 1.2 (0.8–1.8) 0.7 (0.3–1.3) 1.2 (0.6–2.1)
 24–27.9 12,042 3.7 (2.4–5.5) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 1.1 (0.6–1.9) 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 1.2 (0.7–1.9)
 28- 5102 3.1 (1.9–5.0) 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 0.6 (0.3–1.4) 1.1 (0.6–2.0)
P   0.042 0.286 0.583 0.996 0.001
Region
 East 14,009 4.2 (2.5–7.1) 0.9 (0.5–1.8) 1.0 (0.6–1.5) 0.8 (0.4–1.6) 1.8 (1.0–3.3)
 Central 11,895 2.4 (1.0–5.9) 0.4 (0.1–0.9) 1.1 (0.4–2.9) 0.2 (0.1–0.6) 0.6 (0.2–2.1)
 West 5595 5.2 (2.8–9.5) 1.2 (0.4–4.3) 1.4 (0.5–3.9) 1.1 (0.3–3.5) 1.1 (0.6–2.0)
P   0.134 0.070 0.800 0.022 0.022
Residence
 Rural 15,009 4.5 (2.5–7.9) 0.9 (0.4–1.9) 1.3 (0.7–2.4) 0.8 (0.4–1.6) 1.4 (0.7–2.9)
 Urban 16,490 3.4 (2.0–5.6) 0.7 (0.4–1.5) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.6 (0.3–1.3) 1.1 (0.5–2.3)
P   0.407 0.636 0.551 0.603 0.629
Hypertension
 No 18,163 2.8 (1.9–4.2) 0.6 (0.4–1.1) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.4 (0.2–0.6) 0.7 (0.4–1.2)
 Yes 13,336 5.6 (3.8–8.3) 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 1.6 (1.0–2.4) 1.2 (0.6–2.3) 2.2 (1.3–3.6)
P   < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Dyslipidemia
 No 21,830 4.0 (2.7–5.9) 0.8 (0.5–1.4) 1.1 (0.8–1.7) 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 1.3 (0.8–2.2)
 Yes 9669 3.4 (2.2–5.1) 0.7 (0.4–1.3) 1.0 (0.6–1.8) 0.6 (0.3–1.2) 1.0 (0.6–1.8)
P   0.015 0.700 0.549 0.791 0.025
Diabetes
 No 28,214 3.8 (2.6–5.6) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 1.1 (0.7–1.6) 0.6 (0.4–1.0) 1.2 (0.7–2.1)
 Yes 3285 4.0 (2.5–6.3) 1.0 (0.6–1.9) 1.5 (0.8–2.9) 1.2 (0.5–2.6) 1.3 (0.7–2.2)
P   0.581 0.310 0.131 0.018 0.889
Stroke
 No 30,656 3.7 (2.5–5.5) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.6 (0.4–1.1) 1.2 (0.7–2.0)
 Yes 843 7.9 (4.0–15.1) 1.3 (0.4–3.8) 1.9 (0.8–4.7) 1.8 (0.7–4.6) 4.1 (2.2–7.8)
P   0.004 0.295 0.185 0.003 < 0.001
CKD
 No 29,453 3.5 (2.4–5.2) 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 0.6 (0.4–1.0) 1.1 (0.7–1.9)
 Yes 2046 9.2 (6.0–13.9) 2.3 (1.3–4.0) 3.0 (1.7–5.1) 1.6 (0.7–3.5) 3.2 (1.5–6.5)
P   < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001
  1. Data were represented as a percentage (95% CI)
  2. All values were weighted to represent the total population of Chinese aged 35 years or older based on the Chinese census 2010
  3. VHD, valvular heart disease; MS, mitral stenosis; MR, mitral regurgitation; AS, aortic stenosis; AR, aortic regurgitation; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease
  4. P value for x2 or Fisher’s exact test to assess the difference of prevalence among subgroups according to the characteristics