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Table 2 The secondary outcomes and related measurements assessed in the iCARE study

From: Individualized mobile health interventions for cardiovascular event prevention in patients with coronary heart disease: study protocol for the iCARE randomized controlled trial

Secondary outcomes Measurements or tools
Health behaviors
Dietary intake A Short Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) which was developed for this study according to the Chinese Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention [43, 44]
Physical activity The Simplified Chinese Version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) [45]
Smoking status A 32-item Smoking Status Questionnaire which was developed for this study according to smoking history questionnaire from Lv et al. [44]
Medication adherence A validated 8-item Chinese version of Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (C-MMAS-8) a [50, 51]
Cardiovascular health American Heart Association Cardiovascular Health Score [8]
Anthropometry parameters A Baseline Assessment Questionnaire (A) which was developed for this study
Biochemical parameters Collected through follow-up visits with a Follow-up Assessment Questionnaire which was developed for this study and confirmed by reviewing medical records
All-cause mortality Collected through follow-up visits with a Follow-up Assessment Questionnaire which was developed for this study and confirmed by reviewing medical records
All-cause readmission Collected through follow-up visits with a Follow-up Assessment Questionnaire which was developed for this study and confirmed by reviewing medical records
Frequency of medical treatment Collected through follow-up visits with a Follow-up Assessment Questionnaire which was developed for this study and confirmed by reviewing medical records
Patients’ engagement in the intervention Data derived from iCARE platform: (1) the number of screens patients visited, (2) the frequency in uploading data, and (3) the number of interventions they accessed while using the patient application
Cardiovascular risks 10-year Framingham risk scores of cardiovascular risks tool [59]
Mediators and moderators
Risk perception A 4-item Risk Perception on Cardiovascular Risks Scale which was adapted from Renner and Schwarzer [60]
Outcome expectation Outcome Expectation of Healthy Diet Scale, Outcome Expectation of Regular Exercise Scale, and Outcome Expectation of Quitting Smoking were from Renner and Schwarzer [60]. Outcome Expectation of Medication Management Scale was developed for this study
Action planning Action Planning of Healthy Diet Scale, Action Planning of Regular Exercise Scale, and Action Planning of Quitting Smoking Scale were from Renner and Schwarzer [60]. Action Planning of Medication Management Scale was developed for this study
Coping planning Coping Planning of Healthy Diet Scale, Coping Planning of Regular Exercise Scale, and Coping Planning of Quitting Smoking were from Renner and Schwarzer [60]. Coping Planning of Medication Management Scale was developed for this study
Behavioral enjoyment Enjoyment of physical activity will be assessed using the 8-item Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale [61]. Enjoyment of healthy eating, smoking cessation, and adherence to medication therapy will be assessed with the scales adapted from Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale [61]
Social support A 12-item validated Chinese Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) [62]
Self-efficacy Self-efficacy of Diet Scale, Self-efficacy of Exercise Scale, and Self-efficacy of Quitting Smoking were from Renner and Schwarzer [60]. Self-efficacy of Medication Management Scale was developed for this study
Effectiveness perception A 5-item Visual Analogue Scale (ranging from 0 to 10) of effectiveness perception of changes in blood pressure, lipid level, blood glucose, weight, and vascular plaque, which was developed for this study
Intention A Visual Analogue Scale (ranging from 0 to 10) of intention to change unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking was from Renner and Schwarzer [60]. Intention to change medication nonadherence scale was developed for this study
Motivation A 4-item Visual Analogue Scale (ranging from 0 to 10) of motivation to change unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking, and medication nonadherence, which was developed for this study according to Visual Analog Scale for motivation to quit from Vitor de Souza Brangioni et al. [63]
Volition A 4-item Visual Analogue Scale (ranging from 0 to 10) of volition to maintain healthy behaviors and medication adherence, which was developed for this study
Stages of behavior change A 4-item Stages of Behavior Change Scale [64]
Knowledge of CHD Coronary artery disease education questionnaire (CADE-QII) [65]
Perceived importance of health behaviors A Visual Analogue Scale (ranging from 0 to 10) of patients’ perceived importance of health behaviors [66]
  1. CHD: Coronary heart disease
  2. aThe MMAS (8-item) content, name, and trademarks are protected by US copyright and trademark laws. Permission for use of the scale and its coding is required. A license agreement is available from Donald E. Morisky, ScD, ScM,MSPH, 14725 NE 20th St Bellevue, WA 98007, USA; dmorisky@gmail.com