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Table 2 Demographic, clinical and echocardiographic characteristics according to tertiles of GDF-15

From: IGFBP7 and GDF-15, but not P1NP, are associated with cardiac alterations and 10-year outcome in an elderly community-based study

  Total GDF-15 (pg/mL) p
Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3
N = 1907 N = 642 N = 625 N = 640
GDF-15 Median [IQR] 1468 [1168–1984] 1059 [932–1168] 1460 [1368–1605] 2267 [1960–2991]
Range 592–13,015 592–1272 1273–1760 1762–13,015
Age, years Mean ± SD 72.9 ± 5.0 70.6 ± 3.8 72.9 ± 4.7 75.1 ± 5.3 5.6 × 10−66
Females N (%) 962 (48.3%) 393 (59.6%) 316 (48.2%) 253 (37.4%) 4.9 × 10−15
BMI, kg/m2 Mean ± SD 26.5 ± 4.2 26.2 ± 4.2 26.7 ± 4.1 26.5 ± 4.2 0.105
BSA, m2 Mean ± SD 1.80 ± 0.19 1.78 ± 0.19 1.81 ± 0.19 1.82 ± 0.18 1.8 × 10−4
Serum creatinine, mg/dL−1 Mean ± SD 0.96 ± 0.27 0.87 ± 0.20 0.94 ± 0.21 1.07 ± 0.33 1.5 × 10−46
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 Mean ± SD 69.3 ± 21.0 75.2 ± 21.3 70.0 ± 19.4 62.9 ± 20.6 2.9 × 10−26
CKD (eGFR < 60) N (%) 671 (34.0%) 141 (12.5%) 209 (32.3%) 321 (48.1%) 1.0 × 10−23
Clinical history
Hypertension N (%) 1183 (59.4%) 385 (58.4%) 394 (60.2%) 404 (59.8%) 0.798
Diabetes mellitus N (%) 330 (16.7%) 47 (7.2%) 94 (14.5%) 189 (28.0%) 6.2 × 10−24
Smoking N (%) 259 (13.0%) 49 (7.4%) 86 (13.1%) 124 (18.4)% 7.3 × 10−15
Alcohol use N (%) 1170 (58.8%) 399 (60.5%) 386 (58.9%) 385 (57.0%) 0.427
Dyslipidaemia N (%) 854 (43.9%) 289 (44.6%) 300 (46.9%) 265 (40.2%) 0.046
Angina pectoris N (%) 123 (6.2%) 24 (3.6%) 35 (5.3%) 64 (9.5%) 3.2 × 10−5
Myocardial infarction N (%) 122 (6.2%) 16 (2.4%) 34 (5.2%) 72 (10.7%) 1.4 × 10−9
Atrial fibrillation N (%) 153 (7.7%) 29 (44.4%) 44 (6.7%) 80 (11.8%) 1.0 × 10−6
Heart failure N (%) 127 (6.7%) 15 (2.4%) 35 (5.6%) 77 (12.3%) 6.0 × 10−12
AHA/ACC class
Normal N (%) 249 (12.5%) 112 (17.0%) 82 (12.5%) 55 (8.1%) 2.2 × 10−12
A N (%) 466 (23.4%) 158 (24.0%) 153 (23.4%) 155 (22.9%)
B N (%) 1148 (57.7%) 374 (56.8%) 385 (58.8%) 389 (57.5%)
C N (%) 127 (6.4%) 15 (2.3%) 35 (5.3%) 77 (11.4%)
COPD N (%) 178 (8.9%) 34 (5.2%) 67 (10.2%) 77 (11.4%) 1.3 × 10−4
Circulating biomarkers
IGFBP7, ng/mL Median [IQR] 166 [151–184] 155 [144–167] 166 [153–179] 182 [163–203] 4.0 × 10−80
P1NP, ng/mL Median [IQR] 35.2 [26.3–46.0] 35.1 [26.8–44.8] 35.4 [26.6–45.1] 35.1 [25.7–49.3] 0.756
hs cTnT, ng/L Median [IQR] 5.5 [3.0–9.5] 3.3 [3.0–5.9] 5.6 [3.0–9.0] 8.5 [4.9–14.1] 2.8 × 10−69
NT-proBNP, ng/L Median [IQR] 92 [47–186] 66 [37–122] 90 [47–180] 135 [66–299] 1.1 × 10−32
Echocardiography
LVEF, %
(N = 1858)
Mean ± SD 66.1 ± 7.4 67.0 ± 6.2 66.5 ± 6.8 64.6 ± 8.8 4.4 × 10−8
LAA-, cm2
(N = 1332)
Mean ± SD 11.2 ± 4.4 10.7 ± 3.8 11.1 ± 4.3 12.0 ± 4.9 1.9 × 10−5
LV mass / BSA, g/m2
(N = 1489)
Mean ± SD 92.2 ± 23.2 87.9 ± 20.3 91.1 ± 22.0 98.1 ± 26.3 2.4 × 10−12
LVH
(N = 1853)
N (%) 396 (24.8%) 119 (21.0%) 119 (22.6%) 158 (31.5%) 1.2 × 10−4
MFS reduced
(N = 1470)
N (%) 471 (32.2%) 120 (23.4%) 159 (32.6%) 195 (41.4%) 1.6 × 10−8
E/e’ > 8
(N = 1801)
N (%) 801 (44.7%) 239 (39.6%) 262 (43.9%) 300 (50.8%) 0.001
Enlarged LA-area (N = 1332) N (%) 54 (4.1%) 10 (2.1%) 18 (4.1%) 26 (6.2%) 0.008
Outcomes (N = 1715)
All-cause mortality N (%) 526 (30.8%) 81 (14.8%) 139 (24.6%) 306 (51.4%) 5.6 × 10−43
CV mortality N (%) 125 (6.3%) 14 (2.1%) 33 (5.0%) 78 (11.5%) 3.4 × 10−12
Hospitalization N (%) 1360 (79.7%) 410 (75.0%) 448 (79.3%) 502 (84.4%) 4.0 × 10−4
CV hospitalization N (%) 613 (35.9%) 153 (28.0%) 192 (34.0%) 268 (45.0%) 7.4 × 10−9
HF hospitalization N (%) 184 (10.8%) 26 (4.8%) 62 (11.0%) 96 (16.1%) 4.5 × 10−9
  1. BMI, body mass index; BSA, body surface area; CKD, chronic kidney disease defined as eGFR < 60; CV, cardiovascular; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; E/e ‘ > 8 vs <  = 8; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; GDF-15, growth differentiation factor-15; hs cTnT, high sensitivity cardiac troponin T; IGFBP7, insulin grow factor binding protein; LAA, left atrial area, enlarged if > 20 cm2; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVH: Left ventricular hypertrophy defined as LV mass/BSA > 95 g/m2 for women and > 115 g/m2 for men; MFS, midwall circumference fraction shortening, reduced if MFS < 15%; NTproBNP, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide; P1NP, amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen. Continuous data is presented either as mean ± SD or median [IQR]