Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic, clinical and echocardiographic characteristics according to tertiles of IGF BP 7

From: IGFBP7 and GDF-15, but not P1NP, are associated with cardiac alterations and 10-year outcome in an elderly community-based study

  Total IGFBP7 (ng/mL) p
Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3
N = 1913 N = 631 N = 632 N = 650
IGFBP7 Median [IQR] 165.5 [150.7–183.6] 145.4 [138.0–150.6] 165.1 [160.2–170.5] 193.9 [182.8–210.3]
Range 92.4–617.8 92.4–155.2 155.3–175.8 175.9–617.8
Age, years Mean ± SD 72.7 ± 5.0 70.8 ± 4.1 72.2 ± 4.5 75.2 ± 5.2 3.4 × 10−61
Females N (%) 925 (48.4) 366 (58.0) 309 (48.9) 250 (38.5) 2.2 × 10−11
BMI, kg/m2 Mean ± SD 26.5 ± 4.2 26.2 ± 4.0 26.7 ± 4.1 26.5 ± 4.3 0.084
BSA, m2 Mean ± SD 1.80 ± 0.19 1.77 ± 0.18 1.82 ± 0.20 1.83 ± 0.18 6.4 × 10−9
Serum creatinine, mg/dL−1 Mean ± SD 0.96 ± 0.26 0.85 ± 0.17 0.93 ± 0.19 1.10 ± 0.33 1.6 × 10−71
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 Mean ± SD 69.6 ± 21.1 75.6 ± 19.8 72.2 ± 21.5 61.0 ± 19.0 1.4 × 10−38
CKD (eGFR < 60) N (%) 632 (33.4%) 123 (19.6%) 176 (27.9%) 333 (52.2%) 3.6 × 10−36
Clinical history
Hypertension N (%) 1132 (59.2) 357 (56.6) 375 (59.3) 400 (61.5) 0.195
Diabetes mellitus N (%) 313 (16.5) 91 (14.6) 91 (14.4) 131 (20.2) 0.006
Smoking N (%) 252 (13.2) 88 (13.9) 83 (13.2) 81 (12.5) 4.1 × 10−7
Alcohol use N (%) 1128 (59.0) 367 (58.2) 382 (60.5) 379 (58.3) 0.628
Dyslipidemia N (%) 828 (44.3) 302 (49.2) 268 (43.1) 258 (40.8) 0.009
Angina pectoris N (%) 121 (6.3) 41 (6.5) 41 (6.5) 39 (6.0) 0.916
Myocardial infarction N (%) 116 (6.1) 34 (5.4) 28 (4.5) 54 (8.4) 0.010
Atrial fibrillation N (%) 132 (6.9) 28 (4.4) 35 (5.5) 69 (10.6) 1.9 × 10−5
Heart failure N (%) 114 (6.3) 18 (3.0) 35 (5.7) 61 (10.0) 2.0 × 10−6
AHA/ACC class
Normal N (%) 242 (12.7) 104 (16.5) 85 (13.4) 53 (8.2) 1.8 × 10−7
A N (%) 444 (23.2) 148 (23.5) 139 (22.0) 157 (24.2)
B N (%) 1113 (58.2) 361 (57.2) 373 (59.0) 379 (58.3)
C N (%) 114 (6.0) 18 (2.9) 35 (5.5) 61 (9.4)
COPD N (%) 171 (8.9) 48 (7.6) 56 (8.9) 67 (10.3) 0.237
Circulating biomarkers
GDF-15, pg/mL Median [IQR] 1468 [1168–1984] 1250 [1021–1527] 1405 [1168–1761] 1915 [1445–2603] 3.7 × 10−82
P1NP, ng/mL Median [IQR] 35.2 [26.3–46.0] 32.6 [24.5–42.6] 34.9 [26.0–45.5] 37.2 [27.5–51.3] 2.9 × 10−7
hs cTnT, ng/L Median [IQR] 5.5 [3.0–9.5] 3.5 [3.0–6.3] 5.0 [3.0–8.2] 8.1 [4.9–13.7] 5.7 × 10−58
NT-proBNP, ng/L Median [IQR] 92 [47–186] 63 [36–123] 81 [45–151] 142 [69–293] 8.9 × 10−42
Echocardiography
LVEF, %
(N = 1858)
Mean ± SD 66.3 ± 7.2 66.9 ± 6.2 66.7 ± 6.9 65.2 ± 8.3 8.1 × 10−5
LAA-, cm2 (N = 1332) Mean ± SD 11.1 ± 4.1 10.4 ± 3.6 10.9 ± 3.5 11.9 ± 4.9 8.1 × 10−7
LV mass / BSA, g/m2 (N = 1489) Mean ± SD 91.9 ± 23.3 87.4 ± 19.5 92.7 ± 23.8 95.8 ± 25.4 2.5 × 10−8
LVH
(N = 1853)
N (%) 373 (24.4) 99 (18.9) 127 (25.1) 147 (29.3) 4.9 × 10−4
MFS reduced
(N = 1470)
N (%) 448 (31.9) 136 (28.6) 137 (29.6) 175 (37.5) 0.006
E/e’ > 8
(N = 1801)
N (%) 765 (44.4) 216 (38.0) 261 (45.5) 288 (49.7) 3.2 × 10−4
Enlarged LA-area (N = 1332) N (%) 41 (3.2) 7 (1.7) 8 (1.8) 26 (6.2) 1.2 × 10−4
Outcomes (N = 1715)
All-cause mortality N (%) 491 (30.0) 104 (19.7) 130 (23.8) 257 (45.7) 4.9 × 10−23
CV mortality N (%) 115 (6.0) 19 (3.0) 24 (3.8) 72 (11.1) 1.6 × 10−10
Hospitalization N (%) 1297 (79.3) 392 (74.4) 439 (80.3) 466 (82.9) 0.002
CV hospitalization N (%) 583 (35.6) 143 (27.1) 210 (38.4) 230 (40.9) 3.0 × 10−6
HF hospitalization N (%) 168 (10.3) 25 (4.7) 50 (9.1) 93 (16.3) 6.7 × 10−10
  1. BMI, body mass index; BSA, body surface area; CKD, chronic kidney disease defined as eGFR < 60; CV, cardiovascular; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; E/e ‘ > 8 vs <  = 8; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; GDF-15, growth differentiation factor-15; hs cTnT, high sensitivity cardiac troponin T; IGFBP7, insulin grow factor binding protein; LAA, left atrial area, enlarged if > 20 cm2; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVH: Left ventricular hypertrophy defined as LV mass/BSA > 95 g/m2 for women and > 115 g/m2 for men; MFS, midwall circumference fraction shortening, reduced if MFS < 15%; NTproBNP, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide; P1NP, amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen. Continuous data is presented either as mean ± SD or median [IQR]