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Table 1 Patient characteristics by calendar period 1–3 for all individuals with DCM

From: Temporal trends in outcome and patient characteristics in dilated cardiomyopathy, data from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry 2003–2015

Variable Total
(n = 7873)
Period 1 2003–2007
(n = 2029)
Period 2 2008–2011
(n = 3363)
Period 3 2012–2015
(n = 2481)
p value
Patient characteristics
Age (years) 64.6 (13.5) 63.9 (13.5) 64.9 (13.5) 64.9 (13.6) 0.022
Sex      
Female 2030 (25.8%) 456 (22.5%) 889 (26.4%) 685 (27.6%) 0.0001
Smoking      
Never 2548 (38.9%) 622 (37.8%) 1094 (39.1%) 832 (39.3%)  
Former 2730 (41.6%) 685 (41.6%) 1145 (41.0%) 900 (42.6%)  
Current 1279 (19.5%) 339 (20.6%) 557 (19.9%) 383 (18.1%) 0.095
Clinical measurements      
Weight (kg) 83.3 (19.6)
n = 7385
82.9 (18.8)
n = 1925
83.1 (19.7)
n = 3117
84.0 (20.0)
n = 2343
0.066
BMI (kg/m2) 27.4 (7.5)
n = 4042
27.1 (5.2)
n = 942
27.1 (5.6)
n = 1490
27.8 (9.7)
n = 1610
0.068
BMI category (kg/m2)
≥ 30 1125 (27.8%) 238 (25.3%) 397 (26.6%) 490 (30.4%) 0.0029
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 121.1 (19.9)
n = 7791
120.4 (20.4)
n = 2005
121.4 (20.0)
n = 3324
121.3 (19.2)
n = 2462
0.066
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 73.7 (12.3)
n = 7778
73.3 (12.8)
n = 2004
74.0 (12.3)
n = 3314
73.4 (11.9)
n = 2460
0.55
Heart rate (bpm) 73.9 (15.1)
n = 7438
73.3 (14.9)
n = 1711
73.9 (14.6)
n = 3286
74.3 (15.8)
n = 2441
0.16
Mean arterial pressure 89.5 (13.3)
n = 7773
89.0 (13.7)
n = 2001
89.8 (13.4)
n = 3312
89.4 (12.9)
n = 2460
0.22
NYHA class
I 775 (12.0%) 198 (11.5%) 355 (12.4%) 222 (11.7%)  
II 3031 (46.7%) 712 (41.3%) 1335 (46.7%) 984 (51.7%)  
III 2427 (37.4%) 733 (42.5%) 1047 (36.6%) 647 (34.0%)  
IV 252 (3.9%) 80 (4.6%) 120 (4.2%) 52 (2.7%) < 0.0001
LVEF
< 30% 4455 (60.0%) 1192 (62.7%) 1917 (60.7%) 1346 (57.1%)  
30–39% 1700 (22.9%) 404 (21.2%) 707 (22.4%) 589 (25.0%)  
≥ 40% 1264 (17.0%) 306 (16.1%) 535 (16.9%) 423 (17.9%) 0.0014
ECG
Sinus rhythm 4764 (61.4%) 1219 (61.2%) 2027 (61.2%) 1518 (61.9%)  
Atrial fibrillation/flutter 2117 (27.3%) 579 (29.1%) 931 (28.1%) 607 (24.8%)  
Pacemaker/other rhythm 872 (11.2%) 193 (9.7%) 353 (10.7%) 326 (13.3%) 0.0001
LBBB 1917 (29.6%) 467 (30.1%) 797 (28.9%) 653 (30.1%) 0.88
QRS width (ms) 121.1 (31.2)
n = 5552
121.0 (32.0)
n = 1441
119.1 (30.6)
n = 2108
123.3 (31.0)
n = 2003
0.0058
Laboratory tests
Haemoglobin (g/L) 137.7 (16.9)
n = 7801
137.9 (16.9)
n = 2025
137.1 (16.8)
n = 3359
138.3 (17.0)
n = 2417
0.24
Potassium (mmol/L) 4.20 (0.42)
n = 5254
4.20 (0.42)
n = 641
4.19 (0.42)
n = 2414
4.22 (0.42)
n = 2199
0.054
Creatinine (µmol/L) 100.8 (49.3)
n = 7836
105.1 (47.2)
n = 2022
100.8 (50.1)
n = 3359
97.3 (49.6)
n = 2455
< 0.0001
NT-proBNP (ng/L) 4503 (6361)
n = 3353
4365 (6651)
n = 404
4675 (6385)
n = 1352
4393 (6266)
n = 1597
0.85
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 71.0 (24.3)
n = 7836
69.1 (24.7)
n = 2022
71.0 (24.7)
n = 3359
72.7 (23.1)
n = 2455
< 0.0001
Medical history from SwedeHF or patient register
Hypertension 3729 (47.4%) 784 (38.6%) 1642 (48.8%) 1303 (52.5%) < 0.0001
Diabetes 1719 (21.8%) 426 (21.0%) 741 (22.0%) 552 (22.2%) 0.32
Atrial fibrillation 3458 (43.9%) 885 (43.6%) 1470 (43.7%) 1103 (44.5%) 0.56
Lung disease/COPD 1390 (17.7%) 349 (17.2%) 591 (17.6%) 450 (18.1%) 0.41
Stroke/TIA 814 (10.3%) 197 (9.7%) 336 (10.0%) 281 (11.3%) 0.068
Liver disease 290 (3.7%) 79 (3.9%) 128 (3.8%) 83 (3.3%) 0.32
Renal disease 316 (4.0%) 75 (3.7%) 141 (4.2%) 100 (4.0%) 0.60
Dialysis 38 (0.5%) 5 (0.2%) 19 (0.6%) 14 (0.6%) 0.14
Peripheral vascular disease 516 (6.6%) 124 (6.1%) 221 (6.6%) 171 (6.9%) 0.29
Sleep apnoea 360 (4.6%) 59 (2.9%) 140 (4.2%) 161 (6.5%) < 0.0001
Malignant cancer within last 3 years 651 (8.3%) 164 (8.1%) 280 (8.3%) 207 (8.3%) 0.76
Musculoskeletal or connective tissue disorder 1008 (12.8%) 231 (11.4%) 448 (13.3%) 329 (13.3%) 0.073
Medical treatment at discharge
ACEI 5716 (73.0%) 1503 (74.5%) 2495 (74.7%) 1718 (69.5%) < 0.0001
ARB 1894 (24.5%) 456 (23.1%) 793 (24.0%) 645 (26.2%) 0.013
ACEI/ARB 7349 (93.7%) 1887 (93.4%) 3134 (93.6%) 2328 (94.1%) 0.34
Beta blockers 7179 (91.7%) 1806 (89.7%) 3068 (91.7%) 2305 (93.4%) < 0.0001
MRA 3297 (42.2%) 890 (44.2%) 1296 (38.8%) 1111 (45.2%) 0.32
Digoxin 1367 (17.5%) 484 (24.1%) 593 (17.8%) 290 (11.7%) < 0.0001
Statins 2968 (37.9%) 713 (35.4%) 1295 (38.8%) 960 (38.9%) 0.025
Loop diuretics 5697 (74.8%) 1515 (79.8%) 2456 (75.5%) 1726 (70.1%) < 0.0001
Anticoagulants 3322 (42.5%) 868 (43.2%) 1391 (41.6%) 1063 (43.0%) 0.96
ASA 2835 (36.4%) 765 (38.1%) 1309 (39.3%) 761 (30.9%) < 0.0001
Nitrates 620 (7.9%) 220 (11.0%) 260 (7.8%) 140 (5.7%) < 0.0001
Device treatment
Any device 1009 (13.0%) 234 (11.6%) 408 (12.3%) 367 (15.1%) < 0.0001
None 6755 (87.0%) 1782 (88.4%) 2911 (87.7%) 2062 (84.9%)  
ICD without CRT 372 (4.8%) 75 (3.7%) 153 (4.6%) 144 (5.9%)  
CRT without ICD 269 (3.5%) 95 (4.7%) 115 (3.5%) 59 (2.4%)  
CRT with ICD 368 (4.7%) 63 (3.1%) 140 (4.2%) 165 (6.8%) < 0.0001
  1. For categorical variables n (%) is presented. For continuous variables Mean (SD)/n = is presented
  2. DCM dilated cardiomyopathy, BMI body mass index, ECG electrocardiography, NYHA New York Heart Association, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LBBB left bundle branch block, NT-proBNP N-terminal proB natriuretic peptide, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, SwedeHF Swedish Heart Failure Registry, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, TIA transitory ischemic attack, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blockade, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, ASA acetylsalicylic acid, ICD implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, CRT cardiac resynchronisation therapy