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Table 3 Procedural details

From: Long-term results after mitral valve surgery using minimally invasive versus sternotomy approach: a propensity matched comparison of a large single-center series

  MIS (N = 422) CS (N = 422)
n/N or n % or Mean ± SD n/N or n % or Mean ± SD p value
Mitral valve repair 378/422 89.6 354/422 83.9 0.015
AML reconstruction 60/378 15.9 75/354 21.2 0.064
PML reconstruction 280/378 74.1 244/354 68.9 0.123
Annuloplasty ringa 377/378 99.7 350/354 98.9 0.203
 Open (Cosgrove) 156/377 41.4 190/349 54.4 < 0.001
 Closed (CE Physio/Physio II) 219/377 58.1 150/349 43.0 < 0.001
 Other types 2/377 0.5 9/349 2.5  
Resection 93/378 24.6 199/354 56.2 < 0.001
Loops 186/378 49.2 65/354 18.4 < 0.001
Cleft plicature 104/378 27.5 26/354 7.3 < 0.001
Rate of ‘short-term’ successful repairb 363/378 96.0 269/354 76.0 < 0.001
Mitral valve replacement 57/422 13.5 152/422 36.0 < 0.001
Planned 44/57 77.2 68/152 44.7  < 0.001
MV replacement after repair failure 13/57 22.8 84/152 55.3  < 0.001
Biological 41/57 71.9 131/152 86.2 0.016
Mechanical 16/57 28.1 21/152 13.8
Concomitant procedures
Cryoablation 143/422 33.9 80/422 19.0 < 0.001
LAA closure 84/422 19.9 167/422 39.6 < 0.001
Concomitant TVR 29/422 6.9 111/421 26.4 < 0.001
PFO closure 40/422 9.5 25/422 5.9 0.053
ASD closure 3/422 0.7 9/422 2.1 0.081
Myxom 1/422 0.2 3/422 0.7 0.624
Times
Procedure time (min) 422 192.0 (171.0–225.0) 422 185.0 (161.0–218.3) 0.002
CPB time (min) 422 133.0 (114.0–159.3) 422 101.0 (86.0–125.3) < 0.001
X-clamp time (min) 422 80.0 (66.0–98.0) 422 71.0 (59.0–90.3) < 0.001
Length of intubation (h) 422 10.0 (8.0–13.0) 422 12.0 (9.0–16.0) < 0.001
Length of ICU (h) 422 26.0 (22.0–48.0) 422 24.0 (21.0–64.0) 0.421
Length of hospital stay (d) 422 10.0 (9.0–12.0) 422 11.0 (8.0–17.0) 0.001
  1. p values that are statistically significant are highlighted in bold
  2. AML anterior mitral valve leaflet, ASD atrial septal defect, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, ICU intensive care unit, LAA left atrial appendage, MV mitral valve, PFO patent foramen ovale, PML posterior mitral valve leaflet, SD standard deviation, TVR tricuspid valve repair
  3. aFor one patient in the CS group no details for the ring were available. b Defined as MV repair without conversion to MV replacement and hospital survival