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Table 2 Clinical and study characteristics at discharge divided by plasma osmolality on admission

From: Prognostic relevance of elevated plasma osmolality on admission in acute decompensated heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: insights from PURSUIT-HFpEF registry

General condition at discharge All patients (n = 960) Q1 (n = 318) Osm < 293.2 Q2 (n = 322) 293.2 ≤ Osm < 300.3 Q3 (n = 320) 300.3 ≤ Osm P-value
BMI, kg/m2 21.4 (18.9–24.2) 21.1 (18.4–23.8)‡ 21.2 (18.7–24.3) 21.9 (19.4–24.6)* 0.0150
SBP, mmHg 118 (106–131) 117 (106–128)‡ 118 (106–130) 122 (107–134)* 0.0106
DBP, mmHg 65 (58–73) 65 (58–73) 66 (58–74) 65 (57–73) 0.7041
Heart rate 70 (61–80) 70 (63–80) 70 (61–80) 70 (60–78) 0.5914
AF 365 (38) 124 (39) 131 (41) 110 (34) 0.2242
GNRI 92 (85–99) 91 (84–97) 94 (85–101) 92 (85–99) 0.1277
6MWD, m 260 (155–340) 240 (150–333) 270 (156–352) 260 (160–338) 0.5728
NYHA classification      0.6460
NYHA I 340 (36) 111 (36) 106 (33) 123 (39)  
NYHA II 538 (57) 173 (55) 193 (60) 172 (54)  
NYHA III 67 (7) 26 (8) 20 (6) 21 (7)  
NYHA IV 4 (0.4) 2 (0.6) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3)  
Laboratory examination at discharge      
Hemoglobin, g/dL 11.3 (10.1–12.7) 11.5 (10.3–12.7)‡ 11.6 (10.4–13.1)‡ 10.8 (9.5–12.2)*,†  < 0.0001
Hematocrit, % 34 (31–39) 35 (32–38)‡ 35 (32–39)‡ 33 (30–37)*,†  < 0.0001
Serum total protein, g/dL 6.6 (6.2–7.1) 6.8 (6.3–7.2)‡ 6.8 (6.3–7.2)‡ 6.5 (6.1–7.0)*,† 0.0009
Serum albumin, g/dL 3.4 (3.1–3.7) 3.4 (3.1–3.7) 3.4 (3.2–3.8)‡ 3.3 (3.1–3.6)† 0.0104
BUN, mg/dL 25 (18–34) 22 (16–28)†,‡ 25 (18–33)*,‡ 29 (21–42)*,†  < 0.0001
Creatinine, μmol/L 1.1 (0.9–1.5) 1.0 (0.8–1.2)†,‡ 1.1 (0.9–1.5)*,‡ 1.3 (1.0–2.1)*,†  < 0.0001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 42 (30–55) 50 (37–60)†,‡ 42 (32–54)*,‡ 33 (21–49)*,†  < 0.0001
Serum sodium, mEq/L 139 (137–141) 138 (135–140)†,‡ 140 (138–141)*,‡ 140 (138–142)*  < 0.0001
Serum potassium, mEq/L 4.3 (3.9–4.6) 4.3 (3.9–4.6) 4.3 (4.0–4.6) 4.3 (3.9–4.6) 0.8271
Serum chloride, mEq/L 103 (100–106) 102 (99–105†,‡ 103 (100–105)*,‡ 104 (101–107)*,†  < 0.0001
NT–proBNP, ng/L 1112 (478–2550) 993 (497–2190)‡ 952 (439–2025)‡ 1437 (510–3770)*,† 0.0010
CRP, mg/dL 0.29 (0.11–0.90) 0.34 (0.11–1.01) 0.28 (0.11–0.77) 0.26 (0.11–0.93) 0.4804
Glucose, mg/dL 98 (88–117) 97 (87–114) 98 (88–117) 101 (89–120) 0.3746
PVS, % 11.5 (1.9–19.6) 9.9 (1.9–20.0) 9.6 (0.9–17.9)‡ 13.4 (3.1–21.2)† 0.0411
Plasma osmolality, mOsm/kg 294 (289–299) 290 (286–295)†,‡ 294 (290–299)*,‡ 297 (293–302)*,†  < 0.0001
Prescription at discharge      
Antiplatelet 278 (29) 82 (26) 93 (29) 103 (32) 0.1946
ACE inhibitor or ARB 510 (53) 157 (49) 168 (52) 185 (58) 0.0935
Calcium channel blocker 458 (48) 135 (42)‡ 149 (46) 174 (55)* 0.0076
β-blocker 526 (55) 167 (53) 181 (56) 178 (56) 0.5896
Loop diuretics 754 (79) 243 (76) 254 (79) 257 (80) 0.4793
Thiazide 62 (6) 18 (6) 16 (5) 28 (9) 0.1165
Tolvaptan 156 (16) 39 (12)‡ 54 (17) 63 (20)* 0.0377
Aldosterone antagonist 383 (40) 125 (39) 141 (44) 117 (37) 0.1683
SGLT2 inhibitor 50 (5) 13 (4) 12 (4) 25 (8) 0.0356
Anticoagulant 571 (59) 206 (65)‡ 198 (61) 167 (52)* 0.0035
  1. 6MWD, 6-min walk distance; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; AF, atrial fibrillation; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; CRP, C-reactive protein; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; GNRI, Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; NYHA, New York heart failure functional class; Osm, plasma osmolality (mOsm/kg); PVS, plasma volume status; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SGLT2, sodium glucose cotransporter 2
  2. Values are given as median (IQR) or n (%)
  3. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal Wallis test or Fisher’s exact test. Statistical significances between each group (P < 0.05) using Steel–Dwass test for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test with Bonferroni adjustment for categorical variables are shown as following: significance in versus Q1*, versus Q2†, and versus Q3‡