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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and data on admission divided by plasma osmolality

From: Prognostic relevance of elevated plasma osmolality on admission in acute decompensated heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: insights from PURSUIT-HFpEF registry

  All patients (n = 960) Q1 (n = 318) Osm < 293.2 Q2 (n = 322) 293.2 ≤ Osm < 300.3 Q3 (n = 320) 300.3 ≤ Osm P-value
Age, years 83 (77–87) 83 (77–87) 83 (77–87) 83 (77–87) 0.9761
Female 524 (55) 178 (56) 179 (56) 167 (52) 0.5709
Prior HF hospitalization 244 (26) 63 (20)‡ 84 (26) 97 (31)* 0.0089
Comorbidities      
Hypertension 809 (85) 254 (80)‡ 272 (85) 183 (89)* 0.0112
Diabetes 314 (33) 87 (28)‡ 93 (29)‡ 134 (42)*,†  < 0.0001
Dyslipidemia 393 (41) 111 (35)‡ 128 (40) 154 (48)* 0.0036
COPD 73 (8) 25 (8) 21 (7) 27 (9) 0.6247
CKD 384 (40) 97 (31)‡ 118 (37)‡ 169 (53)*,†  < 0.0001
Malignancy 112 (12) 36 (12) 33 (10) 43 (14) 0.4165
General condition on admission      
BMI, kg/m2 23.8 (21.0–26.9) 23.2 (20.6–26.5)‡ 23.7 (20.9–26.8) 24.6 (21.9–27.7)* 0.0022
SBP, mmHg 147 (128–170) 146 (129–166) 149 (127–167) 149 (128–175) 0.3444
DBP, mmHg 80 (66–93) 82 (69–92) 80 (67–94) 76 (64–93) 0.2598
Heart rate 82 (67–100) 82 (68–102) 82 (68–99) 82 (65–100) 0.7596
AF 444 (46) 153 (48) 154 (48) 137 (43) 0.3187
GNRI 98 (90–106) 96 (89–103)‡ 98 (90–106) 100 (92–107)* 0.0110
Laboratory examination on admission      
Hemoglobin, g/dL 11.1 (9.8–12.5) 11.5 (10.1–12.7)‡ 11.4 (10.1–12.7)‡ 10.7 (9.4–12.3)*,†  < 0.0001
Hematocrit, % 34 (30–38) 35 (31–38)‡ 35 (31–38)‡ 33 (29–38)*,† 0.0033
Serum total protein, g/dL 6.7 (6.3–7.1) 6.7 (6.3–7.2) 6.7 (6.3–7.2) 6.7 (6.2–7.1) 0.3454
Serum albumin, g/dL 3.5 (3.2–3.8) 3.5 (3.1–3.8) 3.5 (3.2–3.9) 3.5 (3.1–3.8) 0.3340
BUN, mg/dL 22 (16–32) 18 (14–24)†,‡ 21 (15–27)*,‡ 31 (23–43)*,†  < 0.0001
Creatinine, mg/dL 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.0 (0.7–1.2)†,‡ 1.0 (0.8–1.3)*,‡ 1.4 (0.9–2.0)*,†  < 0.0001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 45 (30–58) 51 (38–65)†,‡ 45 (33–59)*,‡ 33 (21–50)*,†  < 0.0001
Serum sodium, mEq/L 140 (137–142) 137 (134–138)†,‡ 141 (139–142)*,‡ 142 (140–144)*,†  < 0.0001
Serum potassium, mEq/L 4.1 (3.7–4.5) 4.2 (3.8–4.5)† 4.0 (3.7–4.4)*,‡ 4.2 (3.7–4.6)† 0.0084
Serum chloride, mEq/L 105 (101–108) 101 (98–105)†,‡ 105 (103–108)*,‡ 107 (104–110)*,†  < 0.0001
NT-proBNP, ng/L 3250 (1718–6430) 2950 (1637–5281‡ 2820 (1580–5292)‡ 4805 (2108–10,010)*,†  < 0.0001
CRP, mg/dL 0.53 (0.19–1.94) 0.64 (0.21–2.43) 0.46 (0.18–1.47) 0.53 (0.20–2.00) 0.0734
Glucose, mg/dL 122 (103–161) 118 (101–146)‡ 117 (102–147)‡ 133 (112–194)*,†  < 0.0001
PVS, % 8.7 (− 0.4–16.8) 8.3 (− 0.04–17.4) 7.4 (− 1.1–15.6) 9.8 (0.6–17.9) 0.3156
Plasma osmolality, mOsm/kg 297 (291–303) 288 (283–291)†,‡ 297 (295–299)*,‡ 305 (303–309)*,†  < 0.0001
Echocardiographic variables on admission      
LVDd, mm 46 (42–51) 46 (41–49)‡ 46 (41–51) 47 (43–51)* 0.0066
LVEF, % 60 (56–65) 60 (56–67) 61 (56–65) 60 (55–65) 0.8524
LAD, mm 44 (40–50) 44 (39–49) 45 (40–51) 45 (39–50) 0.1973
E/A 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 1.1 (0.7–1.5) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.9 (0.7–1.5) 0.4369
E/e′ 16 (12–21) 16 (12–20)‡ 16 (12–21) 17 (13–22)* 0.0311
TRPG, mmHg 36 (28–45) 36 (28–45) 36 (29–45) 36 (29–45) 0.9959
IVC max, mm 19 (15–22) 18 (15–22) 18 (15–22)‡ 19 (16–22)† 0.0548
IVC collapsibility 0.44 (0.28–0.57) 0.38 (0.23–0.55)† 0.48 (0.30–0.59)* 0.44 (0.29–0.56) 0.0009
Acute phase treatment      
NIPPV usage 121 (13) 36 (11)‡ 26 (8)‡ 59 (19)*,† 0.0003
intubation 16 (1.7) 3 (0.9) 2 (0.6)‡ 11 (3)† 0.0094
DOA (continuous injection) 1 (0.1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.3) 0.3663
DOB (continuous injection) 17 (1.7) 2 (0.6) 7 (2) 8 (3) 0.1591
NAD (continuous injection) 10 (1.0) 3 (0.9) 3 (0.9) 4 (1.3) 0.9018
PDE3I (continuous injection) 3 (0.3) 0 (0) 2 (0.6) 1 (0.3) 0.3717
Carperitide (continuous injection) 207 (22) 54 (17)‡ 66 (21) 87 (27)* 0.0063
nitrates (continuous injection) 264 (28) 85 (27) 80 (25) 99 (31) 0.1989
Calcium channel blocker (continuous injection) 77 (8) 18 (6)‡ 23 (7) 36 (11)* 0.0255
Nicorandil (continuous injection) 6 (0.6) 1 (0.3) 3 (0.9) 2 (0.6) 0.6125
Diuretics (continuous injection) 310 (32) 103 (32) 100 (31) 107 (34) 0.7970
Diuretics (bolus injection) 549 (57) 176 (55) 178 (55) 195 (61) 0.2296
Prescription before admission      
Antiplatelet 292 (30) 91 (29) 95 (30) 106 (33) 0.4225
ACE inhibitor or ARB 481 (50) 149 (47) 156 (48) 176 (55) 0.0924
Calcium channel blocker 489 (51) 148 (47) 162 (50) 179 (56) 0.0575
β-blocker 444 (46) 136 (43) 155 (48) 153 (48) 0.3031
Loop diuretics 483 (50) 133 (42)‡ 165 (51) 185 (58)* 0.0003
Thiazide 72 (8) 33 (10)† 13 (4)* 26 (8) 0.0085
Tolvaptan 52 (5) 14 (4) 22 (7) 16 (5) 0.3667
Aldosterone antagonist 204 (21) 72 (23) 68 (21) 64 (20) 0.7153
SGLT2 inhibitor 15 (1.6) 6 (1.9) 2 (0.6) 7 (2) 0.2363
Anticoagulant 424 (44) 154 (48) 145 (45) 125 (39) 0.0545
  1. ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; AF, atrial fibrillation; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRP,C-reactive protein; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DOA, dopamine; DOB, dobutamine; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; GNRI, Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index; HF, heart failure; IVC, inferior vena cava; LAD, left atrial dimension; LVDd, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NAD, noradrenaline; NIPPV, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; Osm, plasma osmolality (mOsm/kg); PCI, percutaneous catheter intervention; PDE3I,phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor; PVS, plasma volume status; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SGLT2, sodium glucose cotransporter 2; TRPG, tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient
  2. Values are given as median (IQR) or n (%)
  3. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal Wallis test or Fisher’s exact test. Statistical significances between each group (P < 0.05) using Steel–Dwass test for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test with Bonferroni adjustment for categorical variables are shown as following: significance in versus Q1*, versus Q2†, and versus Q3‡