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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by WHtR categories

From: Waist to height ratio is associated with an increased risk of mortality in Chinese patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Variable Low-WHtR
(N = 378)
High-WHtR
(N = 1663)
All
(N = 2041)
p-value
Age (yrs) 74.32 ± 11.90 77.15 ± 11.27 76.63 ± 11.44  < 0.001
Male (%) 358 (94.71) 1598 (96.10) 1956 (95.84) 0.225
Smoking (%) 129 (34.13) 636 (38.52) 765 (37.70) 0.112
Alcohol (%) 114 (30.16) 533 (32.19) 647 (31.81) 0.445
WC (cm) 80.20 ± 5.29 94.57 ± 7.17 91.91 ± 8.85  < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 22.40 ± 3.21 24.92 ± 2.89 24.45 ± 3.11  < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 129.78 ± 17.27 134.12 ± 16.90 133.32 ± 17.05  < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 70.64 ± 9.97 71.07 ± 10.10 70.99 ± 10.08 0.459
HR (bpm) 71.96 ± 10.63 72.03 ± 10.81 72.02 ± 10.77 0.912
FG (mmol/L) 5.70 ± 1.78 5.83 ± 1.69 5.80 ± 1.67 0.174
eGFR (mL/min per 1.73 m2) 90.03 ± 23.13 88.99 ± 25.04 89.18 ± 24.70 0.461
NT-proBNP (pg/mL) 373.15 (240.68–474.20) 494.60 (244.00–644.8) 390.30 (343.00–537.50) 0.016
Echocardiography     
IVS (mm) 11.09 ± 1.10 12.46 ± 1.32 12.20 ± 1.29  < 0.001
LVPWT (mm) 9.78 ± 0.93 10.17 ± 0.95 10.10 ± 0.96  < 0.001
LVEDD (mm) 52.29 ± 3.10 54.25 ± 3.32 53.89 ± 3.30  < 0.001
LVESD (mm) 39.85 ± 2.61 40.83 ± 3.07 40.65 ± 3.02  < 0.001
LAD (mm) 34.34 ± 3.75 36.74 ± 4.09 36.30 ± 4.13  < 0.001
LVESV (mL) 40.98 ± 8.71 44.24 ± 10.35 43.64 ± 10.14  < 0.001
LVEDV (mL) 109.49 ± 16.53 115.51 ± 18.92 114.39 ± 18.64  < 0.001
LVEF (%) 62.54 ± 4.29 61.53 ± 4.83 61.72 ± 4.75  < 0.001
TR velocity (m/s) 3.24 ± 1.79 3.42 ± 0.36 3.39 ± 0.83 0.017
LVMI (g/m2) 119.36 ± 17.53 135.74 ± 19.74 122.65 ± 19.42  < 0.001
RWT 0.426 ± 0.042 0.434 ± 0.0419 0.428 ± 0.042 0.001
Medication (%)     
ACEI/ARB 90 (23.81) 634 (38.12) 724 (35.47)  < 0.001
Beta blocker 79 (20.90) 502 (30.19) 581 (28.47)  < 0.001
Diuretic 33 (8.73) 212 (12.79) 245 (12.00) 0.030
Statins 232 (61.38) 1055 (63.44) 1287 (63.06) 0.453
Number of comorbidities 1.91 ± 1.45 2.49 ± 1.45 2.38 ± 1.46  < 0.001
0–2 271 (71.69) 874 (52.56) 1145 (56.10)  < 0.001
3–4 83 (21.96) 638 (38.36) 721 (35.33)  < 0.001
 ≥ 5 24 (6.35) 151 (9.08) 175 (8.57)  < 0.001
Medical history (%)     
Atrial fibrillation 38 (10.05) 256 (15.39) 294 (14.40) 0.004
Ischemic heart disease 15 (3.97) 127 (7.64) 142 (6.96) 0.005
Hypertension 183 (48.41) 1170 (70.35) 1353 (66.29)  < 0.001
Diabetes 102 (26.98) 598 (35.96) 700 (34.30)  < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD or as percentages
  2. WHtR, indicates waist to height ratio; WC, waist circumference; BMI, body mass index; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HR, heart rate; FG, fasting glucose; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; IVS, interventricular septal thickness; LVPWT, left ventricular posterior wall thickness; LVEDD, left ventricular end diastolic diameter; LVESD, left ventricular end systolic diameter; LAD, left atrial diameter; LVESV, left ventricular end systolic volume; LVEDV, left ventricular end diastolic volume; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; TR, tricuspid regurgitation; LVMI, left ventricular mass index; RWT, relative wall thickness; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin receptor antagonist
  3. Pairwise comparisons: significant for high-WHtR versus low-WHtR