Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics in patients with or without in-hospital death

From: Prognostic value of D-dimer for adverse outcomes in patients with infective endocarditis: an observational study

Clinical variables All (n = 613) Survival (n = 555) Death (n = 58) P value
Demographics     
Age (year), mean ± SD 44.9 ± 16.0 44.4 ± 15.8 50.0 ± 17.5 .011
 Age > 60, n (%) 136 (22.2) 117 (21.1) 19 (32.8) .042
Female, n (%) 423 (69.0) 378 (68.1) 45 (77.6) .138
Comorbidities     
Hypertension, n (%) 96 (15.7) 85(15.3) 11(19.0) .467
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 46 (7.5) 37(6.7) 9(15.5) .015
RHD, n (%) 109 (17.8) 93(16.8) 16(27.6) .041
CHD, n (%) 185 (30.2) 171(30.9) 14(24.1) .288
Prosthetic valve, n (%) 50 (8.2) 35(6.3) 15(25.9)  < .001
NYHA III-IV, n (%) 213 (34.7) 176(31.7) 37(63.8)  < .001
Laboratory results     
TBI (mmol/L), median (IQR) 13.7 (10.0–19.4) 13.6 (10.0–18.7) 19.8 (10.9–33.1)  < .001
CRP (mg/L), median (IQR) 34.4 (14.3–74.0) 33.0 (14.0–70.9) 66.0 (23.6–97.2) .001
SCr (mmol/L), median (IQR) 78.0 (63.0–100.8) 77.5 (62.0–96.3) 88.9 (69.0–132.9) .001
Platelet (109/L), median (IQR) 153.0 (105.2–246.8) 158.0 (106.5–250.0) 127.9 (88.1–219.9) .021
Fibrinogen (g/L), median (IQR) 4.7 (3.9–5.8) 4.8 (3.9–5.8) 4.3 (3.7–5.7) .293
D-dimera (mg/L), median (IQR) 1.2 (0.5–2.5) 1.1 (0.5–2.4) 1.6 (0.8–4.0) .002
Echocardiographic findings     
LVEF (%), mean ± SD 64.6 ± 7.8 64.9 ± 7.5 62.2 ± 9.7 .053
Vegetation, n (%) 592 (96.6) 541 (97.5) 51 (87.9)  < .001
 Vegetation > 1 cm, n (%) 341 (68.5) 304 (67.3) 37 (80.4) .067
 Vegetation location, n (%)     .145
  Aortic valve 171 (27.9) 149 (26.8) 22 (37.9)  
  Mitral valve 254 (41.4) 237 (42.7) 17 (29.3)  
  Others 64 (10.8) 62 (11.5) 2 (3.9)  
PVCsb, n (%) 64 (10.4) 50 (9.0) 14 (24.1)  < .001
Culture positive, n (%) 386 (63) 353(63.6) 33(56.9) .314
 Blood culture, n (%) 378 (61.7%) 346 (62.3) 32 (55.2) .285
 Tissue culture, n (%) 12 (2.0) 10 (1.8) 2 (3.4) .389
Causative organisms     .455
 Staphylococcus, n (%) 91 (23.4) 81 (22.9) 10 (28.6)  
 Streptococcus, n (%) 206 (53.0) 191 (54.0) 15 (42.9)  
 Others. n (%) 92 (23.7) 82 (23.2) 10 (28.6)  
Surgical treatment, n (%) 381 (62.2) 366(65.9) 15(25.9)  < .001
  1. CHD, congenital heart disease; CRP, C-reactive protein; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PVCs, perivalvular complications; RHD, rheumatic heart disease; SCr, serum creatinine; TBI, total bilirubin
  2. aThe normal D-dimer cut-off in the laboratory is 0.5 mg/L
  3. bPerivalvular complications refer to echocardiographic findings of perivalvular leak or abscess