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Table 1 Study population and participant characteristics

From: Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass reoxygenation on myocardial dysfunction following pediatric tetralogy of Fallot repair

  Total Lower PpO2 (163) Higher PpO2 (213) P value
Baseline clinical variables     
Age at surgery, month 23.3 (12.5–39.4) 22.77 (12.9–39.4) 24.60 (12.4–38.8) 0.975
Sex, %     < 0.001
 Female 164 (43.6%) 55 (33.7%) 109 (51.2%)  
 Male 212 (56.4%) 108 (66.3%) 104 (48.8%)  
Body mass index, % 15.59 (14.3–16.9) 15.60 (14.3–16.8) 15.58 (14.3–16.8) 0.974
Hematocrit, % 41.7 (37.4–48.5) 40.70 (37.0–47.0) 42.90 (38.1–49.6) 0.141
SpO2, % 84.0 (77.7–93.0) 86.00 (78.5–95.0) 82.0 (77.0–92.0) 0.004
NYHA class     0.670
 I–II 353 (93.9%) 152 (93.3%) 201 (94.4%)  
 III–IV 23 (6.1%) 11 (6.8%) 12 (5.6%)  
LVEDV index, ml/m2 27.02 (19.96–35.66) 29.00 (22.59–36.88) 25.84 (18.84–34.63) 0.014
Pulmonary annular z-score     
 < − 4.0, % 101 (26.9%) 50 (30.7%) 51 (23.9%) 0.048
 − 2.0 to − 4.0, % 117 (31.1%) 40 (24.5%) 77 (36.2%)  
 > − 2.0, % 158 (42.0%) 73 (44.8%) 85 (39.9%)  
McGoon index     
 ≤ 1.5, % 138 (37.1%) 54 (33.5%) 84 (39.8%) 0.215
 > 1.5, % 234 (62.9%) 107 (66.5%) 127 (60.2%)  
APCAS, %     0.828
 None-minimal (untreated) 187 (49.9%) 84 (51.5%) 103 (48.6%)  
 Minor (untreated) 79 (21.1%) 34 (20.9%) 45 (21.2%)  
 Major (treated) 109 (29.1%) 45 (27.6%) 64 (30.2%)  
Procedural variables     
Cardioplegia, %     0.500
 4:1 (Buckberg) 129 (34.3%) 59 (36.2%) 70 (32.9%)  
 1:4 (del Nido) 247 (65.7%) 104 (63.8%) 143 (67.1%)  
Transannular patch, %     0.880
 Absence 165 (44.0%) 71 (43.6%) 94 (44.3%)  
 Presence 210 (56.0%) 92 (56.4%) 118 (55.7%)  
Tricuspid valve detachment, %     0.461
 Absence 304 (80.8%) 129 (79.1%) 175 (82.2%)  
 Presence 72 (19.2%) 34 (20.9%) 38 (17.8%)  
Blood transfusion, %     0.017
 < 10 ml per kg 60 (16.0%) 27 (16.6%) 33 (15.5%)  
 10–30 ml per kg 121 (32.2%) 56 (34.4%) 65 (30.5%)  
 > 30 ml per kg 195 (51.8%) 80 (49.0%) 115 (54.0%)  
Post-CVP, %     0.530
 5–10 cmH2O 274 (72.9%) 123 (75.5%) 151 (71.0%)  
 < 5 cmH2O 30 (8.0%) 13 (8.0%) 17 (7.9%)  
 > 10 cmH2O 72 (19.2%) 27 (16.5%) 45 (21.1%)  
Post-TPG, %     0.643
 < 15 mmHg 99 (26.3%) 46 (28.2%) 53 (24.9%)  
 15–30 mmHg 160 (42.6%) 70 (42.9%) 90 (42.2%)  
 > 30 mmHg 117 (31.1%) 47 (28.8%) 70 (32.9%)  
CPB time, min 123.5(90.0–158.5) 116.0 (88.5–143.0) 131.0 (92.0–169.0) 0.013
  1. Continuous data are presented as median (IQR) and dichotomous data are presented as counts (%). PpO2 = perfusate oxygenation; SpO2 = percutaneous oxyhemoglobin saturation; LVEDV = left ventricular end-diastolic volume; APCAS = aortopulmonary collateral arteries; CPB = cardiopulmonary bypass; post-CVP = immediately postoperative central venous pressure; post-TPG = immediately postoperative transpulmonary gradient