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Table 1 Patient’s sociodemographic and functional characteristics, morbidity and life expectancy, according to antithrombotic treatment strategy

From: Demographic, clinical, and functional determinants of antithrombotic treatment in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

Characteristics No treatment VKAs DOACs Antiplatelets Antiplatelets + anticoagulants Overall p value
No. (%) 45 (4.7) 573 (59.6) 208 (21.6) 63 (6.6) 72 (7.5) 961 (100.0)
Age, median (IQR), years a 83.0 (74.5–88.0) 81.0 (75.0–86.0) 80.0 (74.0–85.0) 83.0 (76.0–88.0) 78.0 (70.0–82.8) 81.0 (75.0–86.0) 0.001
 ≥ 85 years, n (%) 19 (42.2) 175 (30.5) 56 (26.9) 27 (42.9) 11 (15.3) 288 (30.0) 0.002
Gender, male, n (%) b 24 (53.3) 285 (49.7) 91 (43.8) 30 (47.6) 46 (63.9) 476 (49.5) 0.059
BMI, median (IQR), Kg/m2 a 24.6 (22.7–27.7) 28.0 (24.9–31.7) 27.8 (24.2–31.4) 26.4 (23.5–30.7) 29.2 (25.3–33.6) 27.7 (24.8–31.6) 0.001
Educational level, n (%) b        0.047
Did not complete compulsory education 10 (23.8) 114 (20.9) 36 (17.9) 10 (16.9) 14 (20.0) 184 (20.0)  
Primary education 22 (52.4) 348 (63.7) 113 (56.2) 33 (55.9) 45 (64.3) 561 (61.1)  
Secondary education 4 (9.5) 61 (11.2) 33 (16.4) 10 (16.9) 8 (11.4) 116 (12.6)  
University or higher 6 (14.3) 23 (4.2) 19 (9.5) 6 (10.2) 3 (4.3) 57 (6.2)  
Institutionalized, n (%) c 4 (8.9) 41 (7.2) 2 (1.0) 9 (14.3) 2 (2.8) 58 (6.1)  < 0.001
Dependence in ADLs, n (%) b 18 (40.9) 187 (32.7) 63 (30.3) 34 (54.0) 25 (34.7) 327 (34.1) 0.008
Barthel index score < 60 (severe/total dependence), n (%) b 15 (33.3) 84 (14.7) 33 (15.9) 23 (36.5) 7 (9.7) 162 (16.9)  < 0.001
Charlson index, median (IQR) c 7.0 (5.5–9.0)  7.04 (6.0–9.0)  7.0 (5.0–8.0)  8.0 (6.0–9.0) 8.0 (6.0–10.0) 7.04 (6.0–9.0)  0.009
Cognitive impairment (SPMSQ score), n (%) b 13 (28.9) 172 (30.2) 65 (31.3) 23 (36.5) 18 (25.0) 291 (30.4) 0.692
Score > 7 (severe) 3 (6.7) 86 (15.0) 37 (17.8) 12 (19.0) 7 (9.7) 145 (15.1) 0.194
PROFUND index score, median (IQR)a   6.0 (1.0–10.5) 3.0 (0.0–6.0)  3.0  (0.0–5.8) 5.0 (0.0–10.0) 2.0 (0.0–5.0) 3.0 (0.0–6.0)  < 0.001
1-year mortality risk, n (%) b         < 0.001
Low (12.1–14.6%) 14 (31.1) 258 (45.0) 99 (47.6) 17 (27.0) 37 (51.4) 425 (44.2)  
Low-intermediate (21.5–31.5%) 10 (22.2) 191 (33.3) 72 (34.6) 17 (27.0) 24 (33.3) 314 (32.7)  
Intermediate-high (45.0–50.0%) 10 (22.2) 72 (12.6) 19 (9.1) 17 (27.0) 9 (12.5) 127 (13.2)  
High (61.3–68.0%) 11 (24.4) 52 (9.1) 18 (8.7) 12 (19.0) 2 (2.8) 95 (9.9)  
Life expectancy, n (%) b         < 0.001
 ≥ 6 months 34 (75.6) 522 (91.1) 196 (94.2) 53 (84.1) 68 (94.4) 873 (90.8)  
 < 6 months 11 (24.4) 51 (8.9) 12 (5.8) 10 (15.9) 4 (5.6) 88 (9.2)  
  1. ADL activities of daily living, BMI body mass index, DOAC direct-acting oral anticoagulant, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation, SPMSQ Pfeiffer Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, VKA vitamin K antagonist
  2. For normally distributed data, mean and standard deviation are used, and for data not normally distributed, median with interquartile range are used. aNon-parametric Kruskal–Wallis test, bChi-square test, cFisher’s exact test